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User:Michael von Preußen/Eszett, Long S, and R Rotunda Rules

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{{title|Eszett, Long S, and R Rotunda Rules}}
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{{title|Eszett and Long S Rules}}
 
{{Construction-notice|right=28}}{{Essay}}
 
{{Construction-notice|right=28}}{{Essay}}
   
This page lists the '''rules for the use of the {{wikipedia|eszett}}, {{wikipedia|long s}}, and {{wikipedia|r rotunda}}''' in various languages, as used by [[User:Michael von Preußen|Michael von Preußen]] in his roleplay as the [[Emperor of Großgermania|Emperor]] of [[Großgermania]]. This usage specifically ignores the alterations in the usage of the long and short s in the {{wikipedia|English language|English}} in the mid-eighteenth century, as well as the alterations in the usage of the eszett as prescribed by the {{wikipedia|German orthography reform of 1996}}, which he considers to be an illegal usurpation and degradation of the {{wikipedia|German language}}.
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This page lists the '''rules for the use of the {{wikipedia|eszett}} and {{wikipedia|long s}}''' in various languages, as used by [[User:Michael von Preußen|Michael von Preußen]] in his roleplay as the [[Emperor of Großgermania|Emperor]] of [[Großgermania]]. This usage specifically ignores the alterations in the usage of the long and short s in the {{wikipedia|English language|English}} in the mid-eighteenth century, as well as the alterations in the usage of the eszett as prescribed by the {{wikipedia|German orthography reform of 1996}}, which he considers to be an illegal usurpation and degradation of the {{wikipedia|German language}}.
 
{{SpecialChars}}
 
{{SpecialChars}}
 
== Eszett ==
 
== Eszett ==
 
{{Infobox2
 
{{Infobox2
|image = [[File:Eszett.svg|100px|The majuscule and minuscule eszett]]
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|image = [[File:Eszett.svg|100px|The majiscule and miniscule eszett]]
 
}}
 
}}
The '''eszett''', or '''sharp s''', is an integral part of the German language and its dialects. One of only a handful of letters worldwide with no orthographical majuscule form, the eszett is rendered '''ß''', and may be capitalized as '''{{unicode|ẞ}}''' for use in all- and small-cap typography. Occasionally, and especially pre-Unicodification of the character, the capital eszett would appear as '''{{unicode|阝}}'''. When the character is unavailable, it may be substituted with 'ss' or 'sz', depending on situation.
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The '''eszett''', or '''sharp s''', is an integral part of the German language and its dialects. One of only a handful of letters worldwide with no orthographical majiscule form, the eszett is rendered '''ß''', and may be capitalized as '''{{unicode|ẞ}}''' for use in all- and small-cap typography. Occasionally, and especially pre-Unicodification of the character, the capital eszett would appear as '''{{unicode|阝}}'''. When the character is unavailable, it may be substituted with 'ss' or 'sz', depending on situation.
   
 
=== German ===
 
=== German ===
   
The eszett is only natively found in the German language and its dialects, and as such, only German-language orthography rules apply to its use. Despite its ability to be substituted with 'ss', one should not consider the eszett a replacement for a double-s, only the other way around. The eszett is usually a distinct letter, and only replaces a double s when such is formed irregularly at the end of a word or word component. Words written with a double-s may not have such substituted with the eszett. ''Verfassung'', for example, must never be written as ''Verfaßung'' (in modern orthography; archaically, the latter was an accepted variant). In addition, if an eszett is unavailable, one should always use 'sz' to replace the eszett if substituting in 'ss' would form a different word. For example, substituting 'ss' into the phrase ''in Maßen'' ("in limited amounts") would produce the phrase ''in Massen'' ("in massive amounts").
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The eszett is only natively found in the German language and its dialects, and as such, only German-language orthography rules apply to its use. Despite its ability to be substituted with 'ss', one should not consider the eszett a replacement for a double-s, only the other way around. The eszett is usually a distinct letter, and only replaces a double s when such is formed irregularly at the end of a word or word component. Words written with a double-s may not have such substituted with the eszett. ''Verfassung'', for example, must never be written as ''Verfaßung'' (in modern orthography; the latterwas an archaically-acceptable variant). In addition, if an eszett is unavailable, one should always use 'sz' to replace the eszett if substituting in 'ss' would form a different word. For example, substituting 'ss' into the phrase ''in Maßen'' ("in limited amounts") would produce the phrase ''in Massen'' ("in massive amounts").
   
 
== Long S ==
 
== Long S ==
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{{Infobox2
 
{{Infobox2
|image = [[File:Letter S.svg|87px|The minuscule long and short s]]
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|image = [[File:Letter S.svg|100px|The miniscule long and short s]]
 
}}
 
}}
Unlike the eszett, the '''long s''' ('''ſ''') has no majuscule approximation. In all-caps and small-caps, it is always replaced with a '''short s''' ('''s'''). Rules for the use of the long s are, by virtue of the two characters being alternative glyphs of each other, combined with rules for use of the '''short s''' ('''s''').
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Unlike the eszett, the '''long s''' ('''ſ''') has no majiscule approximation. In all-caps and small-caps, it is always replaced with a '''short s''' ('''s'''). Rules for the use of the long s are, by virtue of the two characters being alternative glyphs of each other, combined with rules for use of the '''short s''' ('''s''').
   
 
=== English and related ===
 
=== English and related ===
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|-style="vertical-align:top;"
 
|-style="vertical-align:top;"
 
|width="75%"|
 
|width="75%"|
#A short s is used when in the majuscule form;
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#A short s is used when in the majiscule form;
 
#A short s is used terminally, except in abbreviations;
 
#A short s is used terminally, except in abbreviations;
 
#A short s is used before an apostrophe or a hyphen;
 
#A short s is used before an apostrophe or a hyphen;
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#huſ-band
 
#huſ-band
 
|}
 
|}
 
Note that the above-listed rules are as they applied when the long s fell into disuse in English. Variations in its use evolved over time before then, and may still be occasionally seen in reproductions of antiquated text. The 1765 printing of {{wikipedia|Danby Pickering}}'s ''{{wikipedia|Statutes at Large#England and Great Britain|Statutes at Large}}'', for instance, made liberal usage of ''ſſ'', only adjusting to ''ſs'' at word-end.
 
 
== R Rotunda ==
 
{{Infobox2
 
|image = [[File:R Rotunda.svg|193px|The majuscule and minuscule r and minuscule r rotunda]]
 
}}
 
Especially in {{wikipedia|blackletter}} typefaces, two glyphs exist for the minuscule letter '''r''': that which survives to the modern {{wikipedia|Antiqua (typeface class)|Antiqua}} orthography, and the '''r rotunda''' ('''{{unicode|ꝛ}}'''). The latter is used following certain letters with a rounded right edge, and as such, like the long s, properly has no majuscule form. The uppercase variant '''{{unicode|Ꝛ}}''' is encoded as of Unicode 5.1, however, and unlike the capital eszett is considered to be the uppercase form of '{{unicode|ꝛ}}'. As such, care should be taken when converting lowercase text including the r rotunda to uppercase, as converting '{{unicode|ꝛ}}' to 'R' is normally a preferable course of action.
 
 
=== Translingual ===
 
 
In his 1755 ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=jjE5AAAAMAAJ Printer's Grammar]'', John Smith established that the r rotunda should follow the majuscule letters B, D, G, O, P, U, and W, and the minuscule b, d, h, o, p, and w. He noted, however, that in German these rules seldom applied. In common practice, usage of the r rotunda varied wildly until the eclipse of blackletter by Antiqua scripts: in English by the close of the eighteenth century, and in German, by government edict in 1941.
 
 
The following may be taken as general guidelines for use:
 
 
* The r rotunda follows the letters B, D, Ð, O, b, ð, h, o, p, {{unicode|ꝛ}}, ß, and þ.
 
* The r rotunda follows the letters G, H, Þ, U, V, W, d, g, u, v, w, and y when they are written in such a way as to present a rounded right edge from the baseline to the median (for example, '{{unicode|∂}}' or '{{unicode|ℌ}}').
 
* An apostrophe can intervene between a round-edged letter and the r rotunda; thus ''they'{{unicode|ꝛ}}e''.
 
 
The proper use of the r rotunda in combination with the same letter, either long or round, abound, such that every possible combination thereof can be found. Some typesetters opt to produce the geminate consonant as 'r{{unicode|ꝛ}}'—for example, in the German-language ''Schönsperger Bible'', which consistently transcribes ''der Herr'' as ''der Her{{unicode|ꝛ}}''. Conversely, the English blackletter in the title page of George Stanhope's second edition of Charron's [https://archive.org/details/wisdomthreebook01stangoog ''Of Wisdom''] notes that the text has been ''Co{{unicode|ꝛ}}rected'', reversing this order. For the remedy of this inconsistency, I have recommended above that the pairing be either uniformly long, as ''rr'', or uniformly round, as ''{{unicode|ꝛꝛ}}'', depending on the letter preceding. This to me makes the greatest sense, as the long r does not have a rounded right edge, while the r rotunda does.
 
 
=== German ===
 
 
In German specifically, the r rotunda may be used in place of the {{wikipedia|Tironian notes|Tironian ''et''}}, {{unicode|⁊}}, in the abbreviation, ''{{wikipedia|et cetera|etc.}}'', as such: ''{{unicode|ꝛ}}c.'' This usage is ''not'' acceptable outside of German blackletter.
 
 
 
[[Category:User:Michael von Preußen|{{SUBPAGENAME}}]]
 
[[Category:User:Michael von Preußen|{{SUBPAGENAME}}]]
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