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Soviet Socialist Republic of Svobodnaya Rossiya
State Flag

State Flag
State Coat of Arms of Soviet Socialist Republic of Svobodnaya Rossiya
State Coat of Arms
Motto
"The advancement of the State is the advancement of the People."
National Anthem
Hymn of the Soviet Union (also Гимн Советского Союза)
Location of Soviet Socialist Republic of Svobodnaya Rossiya
Capital City Kaliningrad
Official Language(s) Russian, German, Polish, Yiddish
Demonym Svobodnayan
Established September 27, 2008
(5,768 days old)
Government Type Communist Communist
Ruler Ivan I. Komarov
Alliance Union of Communist Republics
Union of Communist Republics
AllianceStatsIcon rankingsWorldIcon warIcon aidIcon spy
Total population 1922
 1492 civilians
 415 soldiers
Literacy Rate 89%
Religion Judaism Judaism
Currency Rouble Rouble
Infrastructure 190
Technology 75
Nation Strength 1061
Total Area 73 Nation Map
Native Resources Cattle Uranium
Connected Resources Gold Wheat

The Soviet Socialist Republic of Svobodnaya Rossiya (also Свободная Россиская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика; English: Soviet Socialist Republic of Free Russia) is a Communist state of the Union Of Communist Republics on the Baltic Coast, founded in September 2008. Its capital city is Kaliningrad, which may also be referred to as Königsberg.

History[]

The Constitution and September Revolution[]

SvobodnayanConstitutionHouse

The House of the Convention of the People in Kaliningrad, now a museum.

The state was formed during a period of political unrest in the Baltic states at an event now known as the Convention of the People. A semi-secret meeting was arranged at just before midnight on 26 November 2008 in a house provided by an anonymous member of the conspirators. At least 42 signatures were applied to the final revision of the Svobodnayan constitution, including five high-ranking officers, most notably Lieutenant Ivan I. Komarov, primary author of the constitution, then-Captain Katiya D. Rychenko, then-Captain Sergei Lazutkin, Viktor Tymoshenko and Feodor Tartakovsky.

The document declared a sovereign state, established territorial boundaries, governmental principles and organization, plans for a standing army, and contained a series of annexes concerning civil and political rights. Ivan Komarov was appointed Commissar and temporarily given emergency powers for a duration of 30 days. During 27–29 September, the provisional Red Army secured the new capital city of Kaliningrad and surrounding territory, encountering little resistance and incurring no recorded injuries or loss of life. The General Council of Svobodnaya Rossiya first convened on Thursday, 2 October, and was at the time effectively a mass referendum consisting of leadership and the public. The Council's first acts were to establish civil order and begin cleanup of damage caused by rioting, lack of utilities and general attrition caused by public unrest prior to the state's formation and temporary martial control.

The constitution was revised for the first time during the council's 16–30 October session, its second meeting and first official session, consisting of approximately 200 delegates determined to be "leaders of the local populace" and chosen from varying urban and rural regions based on their demonstrated leadership during the initial reconstruction. Amendments finalized the number of members of the Council, established police and other safety and public services, created departments of the government to deal with finances, oversight of development and public works, the military, education, and other immediate concerns. The national flag, consisting of red and white fields and a hammer and sickle with a single star, was designed during this session, and the 1977 Soviet national anthem was adapted for the official national anthem.

Stabilization[]

Development was slow for the first several months of the state's existence, caused primarily by the poor condition and lack of maintenance on railroads, highways and utility-related infrastructure. The immediate need to concentrate resources on primary urban areas compounded a slow recovery in smaller towns and rural areas, necessitating rations on fresh agricultural products and grain-based foods. Tubers such as potatoes became the primary source of nourishment for the population until foreign aid received in the 2008-09 winter allowed the necessary work to be done to reconnect these areas.

The special Revolutionary Reconstruction Committee consisting of several members of the General Council officially declared the nation's utilities and transportation to be "adequate to the needs of the people" in June 2009, a month which also saw the refitting and reactivation of the Kursk Nuclear Power Station, which until recently provided approximately 30% of the state's electricity.

On 12 August, the national rail and mass transit system was opened, consisting of major rail lines connecting urban centers, two subway systems, bus routes in densely populated areas, and two airports.

The Red Leaves Conflict[]

Main article: Red Leaves
Nightwart55s

Red Army T-55 tanks return from the Red Leaves Conflict.

Fought between 9 and 11 of August 2009, the conflict began when a contingent of land-based infantry and tanks entered Svobodnaya Rossiya, caused indirectly by a military takeover attempt of the government in the nearby Republic of Gradoslavia. The incursion was repelled by Svobodnayan Red Army cavalry and infantry units supported by pilots of the Red Army Air Force in two distinct movements, the Battle of Chornye Ridge, and the liberation of the city of Sovet'sk in Operation Katyusha. Approximately 58 casualties were sustained by the defending forces, and an estimated 350 were sustained by the Gradoslavian army. Civilian casualties, mostly in the city of Sovet'sk and resulting from artillery and tank fire, were counted at 36.

Shortly after Operation Katyusha, which pushed Gradoslavian troops within a kilometer of their own border in a full retreat, the recognized government of Gradoslavia regained control at 1100 on 11 August and signed a ceasefire, as neither side had officially declared war. The brief conflict, lasting just over 48 hours, came to be known the Red Leaves Conflict after its occurrence in autumn, and is responsible for the single black star added to the right side of the national colors, battle flags and naval ensigns. Two identical monuments were erected to fallen soldiers and civilians, one in the city of Sovet'sk and one in the national cemetery in the capital of Kaliningrad. Reconstruction partially funded by aid from Gradoslavia completed in the city of Sovet'sk in mid-October.

The Kursk Nuclear Power Station accident[]

Kursk nuclear

The Kursk Nuclear Power Station in operation.

A fire in reactor 2 at the Kursk Nuclear Power Station in early October 2009 resulted in a Site Area Emergency declaration and a mandatory civil evacuation of a 6-kilometer radius around the plant. Located outside Ladushkin, approximately 20 km southwest of the capital of Kaliningrad along the E28 highway, the facility is operated jointly by the state government and SynEnergia, a public electrical cooperative.

The plant dates from 1974, consisting of 4 former Soviet RBMK (also Реактор Большой Мощности Канальный), or "high power channel type" graphite-moderated reactors, the same type of reactor involved in the Chernobyl accident. In order to accommodate prevention of a similar disaster, the plant, deactivated and without fuel in the reactors, was completely overhauled and upgraded with modern safety features (in addition to those added in the 1990s following recommendations by the International Atomic Energy Agency) and a full containment structure remodel in the spring of 2009. After the first shipments of fuel rods arrived in May 2009, each reactor and its operational equipment underwent several periods of low-power testing and a battery of inspections over the next month. On 6 July, the reactors began a slow start-up to 70%, or 1500 MWe power, the maximum recommended.

The excursion incident began shortly before 0230 on 2 October. An abnormal rise in temperature was reported by thermocouples in the northwest reactor, No. 2, in the fuel rod assemblies at approximately 0233, followed by radiation-detecting equipment registering levels higher than normal at various locations in the containment chamber, at which point an automatic SCRAM order initiated, and at approximately 0300 the Site Area Emergency was declared. Fire brigades assigned to the plant arrived in four trucks around 0310 to prepare their personal protective equipment and hose lines.

Operating staff established that the graphite blocks in the reactor had ignited and fractured due to a brief cooling pump fault, which had caused air pockets to enter and collect in the water channels, and that the uranium fuel rods were burning in the presence of oxygen causing hot radioactive graphite, uranium and byproducts to circulate inside the reactor. The remaining three reactors on-site were immediately SCRAMed and shut down; the faulty cooling loop was isolated, and all emergency coolant systems were activated. A mandatory civil evacuation was ordered at 0345 as the fire continued inside the reactor. At 0930, the order was given to begin adding fire suppressants and neutron poison to the emergency coolant. Operators began introducing the chemicals at 1045; the temperature rapidly dropped as fission slowed to a near-halt in the stricken reactor, and the fire was declared out at 0100 on 3 October. No radiation was confirmed to have leaked to the outside environment, though levels were slightly raised in the reactor hall and areas containing coolant piping; the maximum dose received by any personnel on site was less than 500 mSv. The Site Area Emergency was lifted at 1200 on 5 October.

After preliminary hearings and investigations by both the IAEA and the Svobodnaya Rossiya Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the operators on duty during the third shift have not been found responsible for the incident, as it appears to be have been "due to an unforeseeable mechanical failure". The investigation also established that at no point was the reactor at risk of explosion or large discharge of radioactivity, and that backup systems and decisions made by the plant operators on shift at the time had worked almost flawlessly. Reactors 2 and 4 remain shut down, and 1 and 3, running on an entirely separate support system, resumed half-capacity service at 35% power on 19 October. Non-operations-related civilian traffic is still not permitted into the immediate area around the plant.

Svobodnaya Rossiya's government has plans to decommission all four reactors at the site beginning in 2028 and expected to complete in 2042, to be replaced by a neighboring site's future six reactors, four of a type yet to be determined by currently ongoing research, and two experimental pebble-bed type reactors pending contract. The nation has only one other operating nuclear reactor on its military complex at Baltiysk on the Baltic Sea, and two small limited-output reactors, one at the National Military College in Kaliningrad, and the other at a state medical research laboratory, also at Baltiysk.

The Soviet Union[]

On 21 October 2009, Svobodnaya Rossiya submitted its support for the Soviet Union's new constitution, ending an era of loose ad-hoc membership in the alliance and bringing about official status as a member state, creating more opportunities for cooperation in economic, developmental and military capacities. The state constitution has been changed, including amendments for massive governmental, public and military reorganization to accomodate the needs of the parent state. Revisions prepared in advance of the official entry into the alliance were approved by the General Council and will take begin taking effect Monday, 26 October.

The Decembrist conflict[]

On the morning of 16 December 2009, two separate waves of the army of Republic of Chaos clashed with peacetime standing Red Army troops inside Svobodnaya Rossiya.

In the first wave, consisting of infantry and tanks, the Red Army lost 173 soldiers and 59 tanks, with no losses to infrastructure or land area. The Republic of Chaos forces suffered 389 casualties and the loss of 207 tanks, as well as losses in equipment abandoned on the field.

The second wave was slightly more successful for the attackers, inflicting 404 casualties and the loss of 18 armored units in the Red Army, but at the cost of 605 of their own troops and another 171 tanks; further amounts of equipment and personnel were captured by the Red Army. This wave was also unsuccessful at gaining land or destroying significant amounts of infrastructure in Svobodnaya Rossiya.

The government of the Republic of Chaos offered peace immediately thereafter, even going so far to admit it was on the grounds that his forces were unable to inflict significant damage on the Red Army or Svobodnaya Rossiya. The Red Army stood down approximately 12 hours later without formal retaliation.

The Collapse of the Soviet Union[]

In late 2010 after a merger with the Union of Communist Republics (to become the USCR), it was agreed among a majority of the nations of the Soviet Union that without the leadership structure former member nations had provided, it was in the best interest of all to find new alliances and dissolve the Soviet Union. At present, Svobodnaya Rossiya still bears the formal title Soviet Socialist Republic, and has not signed the dissolution agreement. As such, the state formally retains its status as the only province within a larger state and honors all previously signed inter-alliance treaties without change.

Union of Communist Republics[]

On 4 July 2020, the Republic became a member of the Union of Communist Republics and a signatory to all treaties and laws thereto pertaining.

Government[]

Under the 23 October 2009 revision of the constitution, the state government consists of two primary branches, executive and legislative, the administration of the Red Army, and the state security service Agency for National Defense (also Агентство Национальная Оборона).

Executive branch[]

Coat-of-Arms---Office-of-the-Commissar

Seal of the Office of the Commissar.

At the head of the executive branch is the Office of the Commissar. This office is effectively the supreme position in the state, and may issue executive orders, order temporary military action, and veto legislation, but may not directly make legislation. No provisions exist to remove the Commissar from office, nor to determine a new one should the current Commissar resign, step down, die or otherwise be unable to continue duties in the post.

Reporting, but not subordinate to the Commissar are the seven directors of the Departments of Security, Justice, Education, Interior, Development, Foreign Affairs, Culture, and Finances. The two officers of most superior rank of the Army and Air Force report and are subordinate to the Office of the Commissar and participate in these cabinet meetings. Ambassadors and delegations are part of the Department of Foreign Affairs, though they also report directly to the Office of the Commissar outside of cabinet meetings.

The executive branch technically also contains the Red Army Command, as the Commissar is considered the Commander of the Red Army, above the two individual commanders-in-chief. The Red Army is covered in more detail in "Military".

Legislative branch[]

The General Council is the sole legislative body at the state government level. It meets in the Kaliningrad Administrative Complex's secure chambers, and consists of one house of 150 freely-elected representatives from various districts, divided by population; initial elections are held every other year on the last Thursday of September, and runoffs are held if a candidate does not attain more than 50% of the initial vote in their district.

The General Council convenes Thursday-Tuesday for two weeks, beginning with the last Thursday of every other month. Council members are permitted to send a page in their absence to vote if they are required elsewhere or otherwise unable to attend, though pages may not submit legislation; therefore member attendance is considered basically mandatory except in times of crisis or illness.

Individual committees for the resolution of national issues, or panels for internal investigation, may be appointed for periods up to 60 days to investigate specific situations or national issues by a vote of at least 75%, or 113, of the council. This requirement prevents unnecessary spending and distraction, but also prevents the resolution of issues from being delayed if only a small percentage of councillors abstain or vote against.

The Council also confirms the top two positions from each of the departments, which are Director of the Department and Secretary to the Director of the Department. Promotions or appointments to these positions are internal to the organization itself.

Individual departments[]

The state government also has seven departments that are subordinate to the General Council and report to the Office of the Commissar.

Security
Maintains classified records and information regarding security clearances, creates immigration policies, conducts special criminal investigations, operates anti-terrorism units. Serves as liaison between the Agency for National Defense and other government entities. Alexsandr Volkov is the current Director.
Justice
Operates the state courts system, the highest court being the National Judicial Court of Svobodnaya Rossiya, and which hears constitutional cases and disputations of the legality of policies, in addition to hearing cases regarding terrorism and espionage. Does not hear appeals from lower courts. Establishes regulations for local and district courts, and maintains birth and marriage records for individuals. Nikolai Simonov is the current Director.
Education
Maintains public secondary schools, colleges, and universities, and provides lodging as needed for students in post-secondary education; jointly operates two military academies with the Red Army. Also manages educational regulations and standards for private institutions. Evgeniy Sokolov is the current director.
Interior
Manages government- and volunteer-operated police, fire and rescue services, operates state parks, monuments and recreational facilities, and administrates the State Emergency Administration and the recently founded Committee of the Environment. Anton Korolev is the current Director.
Development
Works with public cooperatives to maintain utilities, engineers and constructs roads, railways, and airports, and is responsible for contracting state projects. Aleksy Dzikiewicz is the current Director.
Foreign
Affairs Operates embassies, liasons, and delegations to alliances. Advises other departments and the military on the state of foreign affairs, analyzes international demographics and trends, brokers treaties, arranges visits from foreign dignitaries, and manages foreign aid offers and trade agreements. Anastazja Niemeyer is the current Director.
Culture
Operates museums, libraries, theaters, concert halls, and general venues. Oversees state-based fine arts and media. Manages copyrights and promotes distribution of culturally-significant publications. Organizes parades, holiday celebrations, festivals, and issues permits for public gatherings, including protests, and licenses broadcast and print media. Mariya Chernekov is the current Director, succeeding the late Nikodem Kasprowicz.
Finances
Prints currency, edits and approves budgets proposed by the General Council, investigates large-scale monetary fraud and counterfeiting, manages markets and staple product distribution. Advises other departments on areas needing financial and developmental assitance. Sets the foreign exchange rate and monitors inflation. Also issues loans to individual banks, and sets credit rates for public loans from said banks. Laurent Romançon is the current director.

National security service[]

The ANO, or Agency for National Defense (also Агентство Национальная Оборона) serves as the state security organization, dealing in intelligence, counter-intelligence, and anti-terrorism; also maintains trained agents to protect government figures of interest.

The Agency has a large analytical department to determine threats by observing patterns in foreign relations and publishes reports to be submitted to the General Council and Office of the Commissar for consideration when making foreign policy. Some of these reports are released for public dissemination for educational purposes.

Agency spokespersons have stressed that when dealing with internal affairs, the ANO has no authority to directly confront, arrest or otherwise detain civilians or foreign nationals except in circumstances of imminent or observed terrorist or espionage-related activities. The Department of Security's investigative unit maintains the sole authority to confront, arrest and otherwise detain civilians based on criminal charges or suspicion of terrorist plots, and may grant this authority to the ANO only on a temporary basis in times of severe crisis. Once arrested or otherwise detained, persons must be surrendered to the Department of Security for processing and eventual trial in the National Judicial Court system.

Natasha Nikolaevna Mikutin is the current Director of the ANO.

Military[]

The Red Army Command is based in the capital city of Kaliningrad, and inherited much of the military infrastructure in-place; Kaliningrad Oblast used to be the most heavily militarized area of the Russian Federation. It was the headquarters of the former Soviet Baltic Military District. Kaliningrad also functions as the headquarters of the Soviet Baltic Fleet, circled by Chernyakhovsk (air base), Donskoye (air base) and Kaliningrad Chkalovsk (naval air base).

The national military maintains approximately 400 regulars across the Red Army and Red Army Air Force, and comprised 7 percent of the Soviet Union's military might at the time of its dissolution. A small developing naval and marine detachment is currently under the command of the Red Army while provisions for a new branch are pending in the General Council. The national army march is "Let's Go" (also Солдаты, В Поход).

Svobodnaya Rossiya is currently seeking a nuclear arsenal, which the administration "feels necessary as a deterrent with which to protect the people". Ongoing development of a deliverable weapon is under the management of the Red Army Special Nuclear Engineering Sector.

Political affairs are managed by the General Staff of the Red Army, which meets in the Kaliningrad Administrative Complex's north wing, and consists of the heads of individual armies and the air force under commanders-in-chief Army Marshal Katiya D. Rychenko and Air Force Marshal Sergei A. Lazutkin; both are designated by "General" in terms of the operational command structure. Commencement of military operations must be ordered by the Commissar, and personnel may not be involved in an external conflict for longer than 30 days except by approval of the General Council. The military operates independently of the rest of the Soviet Union as per the state constitution, and maintains its own command structure.

Primarily composed of light infantry supplemented by armor and light artillery, special weapons and snipers, experineced engineers and close air support, the forces are designed for mutual operations and unconventional warfare. Sudden movements and nonstandard attack patterns were demonstrated in the Red Leaves Conflict.

The Army and Air Force are considered to be extremely well-developed and trained, despite lacking some technological improvements and incomplete modernization. The armed forces have been estimated to be one-quarter more effective than an average military of the same size. Similarly, the upper commands of both forces have been praised for their efficiency and careful planning during disasters and military conflict.

Geography, climate, and environment[]

Geography[]

PregolyaRiver

The Pregolya River upstream of its navigable length.

The state is based around the capital city of Kaliningrad, located at the mouth of the navigable Pregolya River, which empties into the Vistula Lagoon, an inlet of the Baltic Sea.

Sea vessels can access Gdańsk Bay and the Baltic Sea by way of the Vistula Lagoon and the Strait of Baltiysk.

Khrabrovo Airport is located 24 kilometers (15 mi) north of Kaliningrad, and operates as a civil and military airfield providing international and in-alliance air travel aboard the state fleet, Aeroflot. Devau Airport exists within city limits for light general aviation service to other small in-state airfields. Both airfields are open to commercial and foreign traffic, and Kaliningrad is also home to several explicitly military airbases.

The coastal land is generally low-lying and hilly, rising into steppe-like plains further inland; there are large expanses of unpopulated forest to the southeast. Multiple rivers and lakes are located throughout the state.

Climate[]

Proximity to the Baltic Sea provides a moderated climate, allowing the agricultural industry to produce grains, tubers and various livestock. Measurable precipitation occurs 12 days out of every month and averages about 72 cm (28 in.) yearly. Summers are warm to very warm, with an average high temperature of 22°C (73°F). Winters are moderately cold, with an average low of 3.5°C (25°F). Kaliningrad's ports remain mostly ice-free year round.

Environment[]

The environment is considered clean and mostly pollution-free, as technology has provided sound methods of mass transportation and industrial waste disposal.

However, the southern quarter of the state suffers from higher-than-normal background radiation due to recent nuclear conflicts between nearby nations. Certain susceptible zones are under supervision and may be subject to restrictions on material exports to other areas. A zone around the currently partially-inoperative Kursk Nuclear Power Station is also subject to these restrictions and is off-limits to civilian traffic. The Interior Office's Committee of the Environment has made a statement that "hopes are high to reopen the area" as soon as it is determined the accident has no potential to harm to the environment, persons, or natural resources in the zone.

Foreign relations[]

Svobodnaya Rossiya is the most senior state of the Soviet Union, having been the first and founding member state as of 8 October 2008. Under request from other member states, particularly Decronia, an official pledge of support for the Soviet Union's new constitution, effective immediately, was signed by the General Council and submitted to the alliance on 21 October 2009.

As of 19 March 2011, Svobodnaya Rossiya was the sole remaining member of the Soviet Union, and maintains all international and inter-alliance treaties accordingly.

Trade and Diplomacy[]

Several ongoing trade agreements, exchanging exports of pigs and clean water for cattle, fish, iron, lead, marble, rubber, sugar, uranium, and grains, provide for the needs of the civilian and military sectors of the state; Svobodnaya Rossiya is not currently seeking any further imports.

Svobodnaya Rossiya officially does not directly maintain treaties with other nations and alliances, and is party to all parent treaties signed by the Soviet Union; however, as it is the sole remaining state, the congress of the Soviet Union is little more than a formality through which the General Council of Svobodnaya Rossiya operates.

Economy[]

Soviet Union-1991-Coin-10

A 10-rouble coin adopted from the Soviet Union.

The economy of Svobodnaya Rossiya is considered to shift between socialist and command as need dictates. The state of the economy is governed by the General Council's Committee on Economic Affairs, which manages the exchange rate, the printing of currency, and economic quotas.

Public markets[]

The people generally have financial freedom, meaning there is currency that can be spent in privately-owned stores; however, products and services are subject to regulations and the possibility of government control in times of war or economic uncertainty. Some products may be in limited quantities due to governmental requirements.

The public may also purchase "stock" in government-run industries, the largest of which are Farm Bureau Collective, which supplies and buys from individually-owned farms, Auto-Bloc, which manufactures civilian and service vehicles, and Spartak Technological Manufacturing, which is considered a defense contractor, but also has many distinct divisions in pharmaceuticals, computing, and telecommunications that exist under separate names.

The average person is subject to an approximately-flat 25% tax on income, which has been cause for some unhappiness among the populace; however, it is generally accepted that the high tax rate is balanced out by the high-tech job market (which provides services and manufacturing for other nations at a relatively strong profit margin) and a low cost of living.

Government services[]

Persons may opt for government healthcare or an amount of financial assistance if they choose to go to private practices and specialists. Most emergency, university and general hospitals are state-owned. Civil services are also funded in whole or part by the state government, including police, fire and rescue squads, though all are operated on a local level. Volunteer fire and rescue squads are common.

There are state-run welfare services available to the infirm, elderly or otherwise unable to provide for themselves; eligibility requirements remain strict to prevent misuse of the system. In addition to general welfare, pensions for the elderly begin at the age of 65 or at retirement, whichever is earlier; these pensions are subject to the cost of living.

Education[]

The state educational system, under the Department of Education, operates local primary and secondary schools; there are a few colleges and universities, most notably the State Technical University in Kaliningrad. Svobodnaya Rossiya's most popular schooling fields include computer science, engineering, pure sciences and mathematics. Classes are taught at all levels in Russian.

Privately owned schools, colleges and universities also exist, though these are audited on performance yearly and are unlikely to receive government educational grants. Homeschooling is permitted but not encouraged out of interest for social development.

Grammar and secondary schools are based upon the English school system. Students begin formal first-year education when they are age 5 by September 1, attending a local grammar school until year 6, or age 10. Grammar schools operate from 9 AM to 3 PM, Monday through Friday, and take various holidays in addition to a long summer break and a two-week winter break in December.

All students passing each of their first 6 years (failing a year results in retesting during the summer and repeat years as necessary) are automatically accepted to local secondary schools, beginning with year 7. Mid-year and final exams are administered for each class yearly, and optional post-secondary entry exams begin in year 12, and advanced students or those otherwise bound for continued education may enter a special preparatory school for their year 13. Secondary schools operate on the same schedule as grammar schools.

Most colleges and universities operate in two 4-month semesters over 3 or 4 years depending on the area of study or chosen future profession. Students will generally take 18 weekly classroom hours in lectures and laboratory; mid-semester and final exams account for an average 20% of students' marks. Certification-only and non-degree classes are offered by most of these institutions to the general public as well.

The government does not have a ban list on materials distributed in schools so long as they are a part of the curriculum and do not violate school ethical codes. Most state grammar and secondary schools and a percentage of post-secondary institutions also have uniform codes.

Culture[]

The most common demographic is Russian, followed by German, Polish, Baltic, Scandinavian, and Swiss. The most prevalent among the nation's mixed religions is Judaism, followed by atheism, Christianity, and various pagan faiths. There are three national languages, Russian, German, and Polish, though many are spoken (such as Yiddish), and print and broadcast media are found in just as many. However, government signage and official documents are in Russian unless a special case requiring a different or secondary language is presented, such as in regions where the populace is primarily non-Russian-speaking, or an official translation is preferable to later misinterpretation, such as in the constitution and its amendments.

Attractions[]

The capital of Kaliningrad, accounting for much of the state's urban area, has the highest concentration of historical and cultural attractions - multiple museums, theaters, monuments, parks and other places of interest.

Music and Theater[]

Kaliningrad philharmonic

The Kaliningrad Philharmonic.

The capital is home to the Kaliningrad State Philharmonic Orchestra in the the former Catholic Church of the Holy Family of Königsberg, built in 1907. Though the original building was destroyed during The Great Patriotic War (World War II), it was rebuilt and is known regionally for good acoustics. The orchestra performs the national anthem and marches at parades and ceremonies held by the state government, holds concerts, and regularly records classical and neoclassical music for distribution. The orchestra is sometimes augmented by the Red Army Choir, folk instrumentalists, or features popular musicians.

The city's theater program is housed in the Königsberg theater, which was opened in 1910. The building was rebuilt after the war using earlier plans for the theater and opened in 1960. The colonnade in front of the entrance was modeled after the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow.

Architecture[]

CathedralKaliningrad

The historic Königsberg Cathedral in Kaliningrad.

Architecture across the state varies from the old, including traditional Russian, German and Polish styles, which can be found in existing and new buildings, through Soviet modernism, and in some locations more postmodern Western styles. In Kaliningrad itself, the original city centre currently consists of parks, broad avenues, a square on the site of the former Königsberg Castle, and only two buildings: the House of the Soviets, roughly on the site of the former Castle, and the restored Königsberg Cathedral on the Kneiphof island (now "Kant Island" after Immanuel Kant). The new city centre is concentrated around Victory Square where The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, consecrated in 2005, is located.

RussianWoodenHouse

A traditional wooden house.

Other landmarks are the Stock Exchange building, various churches, and the remaining city gates. In counter-clockwise order these gates are: the Sackheim Gate (German: Sackheimer Tor), King's Gate (German: Königstor), Rossgarten Gate (German: Rossgärter Tor), Attack Gate (German: Ausfallstor), Railway Gate (German: Eisenbahntor), Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor), and Friedland Gate (German: Friedländer Tor). The Wranger tower also remains as a reminder of the former Königsberg city walls.

Museums[]

Kaliningrad has many museums. A few examples are the Immanuel Kant museum on Kneiphof Island, the Museum of History and Arts, which still has parts of the Prussia collection of local archaeological finds, and an eight-room art gallery. A retired Foxtrot-class submarine operates in good weather as a museum of the Soviet and Svobodnayan navies. The Kaliningrad Arboretum was formerly a zoo that originally opened in the 19th century, and is now publicly open for recreational and relaxation activities.

Monuments[]

Also notable is the Soviet Cosmonaut monument, honoring Kaliningrad cosmonauts Alexei Leonov, Yuri Romanenko and Alexander Viktorenko. Other statues and monuments include the statue a statue of Tsar Peter the Great, "Mother Russia", and the Monument of the 1200 Guardsmen. Several war and political monuments also exist outside of urban areas, including several to the Great Patriotic War and one more recently laid to the Red Leaves conflict, are found on historic battlefields. Some areas of Kaliningrad and the surrounding suburbs remain damaged from British bombing and subsequent fires during the 1944-1945 Battle of Königsberg.

Cuisine[]

Kaliningrad also boasts a large variety of breweries, pubs, restaurants, and cafés, serving traditional and modern food and drink based in Russian, German, Polish, ethnic Jewish, and American origins, in addition to specialty restaurants from other cultures and a large selection of bakeries, confectionaries and chocolatiers.

Holidays[]

The national holiday of independence is held every 27 September, and is considered a federal holiday; employees of government functions and most businesses are given leave on this day or the nearest workday. Victory Day, celebrating the end of the Great Patriotic War, is held on 9 May and similarly affects economic and government operations.

A variety of non-sanctioned holidays are celebrated by various demographics in religion and cultural background, causing pronounced economic effects in regions of diverse populations.

Media[]

Svobodnaya Rossiya has several state-owned television and radio networks, which broadcast news, sports, entertainment, and general television including comedies, dramas and educational programming. The Soyuz Gazeta, the national Russian-language newspaper, has been running since January 2009, and includes politics, business, entertainment and educational articles, in addition to serialized stories, cartoons and editorials. There approximately 13 non-state television channels and 6 broadcast music or mixed radio stations with operating permits in the state.

Imported film sales have long prevented a stable Svobodnayan movie industry, although independent films and documentaries are popular among young and middle-aged adults, and some local acting talent has been featured at home and abroad. Domestic music sales are gradually rising, primarily in the symphonic rock and pop genres.

Sport[]

In addition to interscholastic sports teams, there are two professional football teams, FC Soyuz and FC Kaliningrad, that have recently gained recognition in international leagues and are now eligible for continental competitions in the 2022 season. Other popular sports and recreational activities include hiking, ultimate Frisbee, hockey, hunting, cricket, lacrosse and gymnastics. No athletes have yet participated in the Olympic Games, and are unlikely to do so in 2022, and the state has made public no plans regarding national teams in any international sport.

Sister Cities[]

  • Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • Sweden Kalmar, Sweden
  • Mexico City, Mexico
  • Groningen, Netherlands
  • Klaipėda, Lithuania
  • Šiauliai, Lithuania
  • Cork, Ireland
  • Aalborg, Denmark
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