Strathclydian Gaelic (Gaelic: Gàidhlig á Srath Chluaidh [ˈkɑːlʲɪkʲ a s̪rˠahj xɫ̪uəɣ]) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. It was the official language of the People's Democratic Soviet Republic of Strathclyde, and differs from Scottish Gaelic in several ways, such as the inclusion of the letter v, as well as the combination of the plural with the singular and the feminine with the masculine.
Outside Strathclyde, the language is widely known as Strathclydian, a term that the Government of Strathclyde is attempting to discourage the use of.
Scottish Gaelic Edit
Main article: Scottish Gaelic - History
Scottish Gaelic dates back to the consolidation of the kingdom of Dál Riata around the fourth century, which linked the ancient province of Ulster in the north of Ireland and western Strathclyde. Gaelic had been the natural language of Ireland for several centuries (although it was not written until the fifth century), and the union of the two locales fascilitated the spread of the language to Strathclyde.
Scottish Gaelic was written in the Latin script from the sixth century. It was the official language of the Kingdom of Scotland until the union of Great Britain under the Scottish crown in 1603. Following the Act of Union (1707), the Scottish language began to rapidly decline due to persecution by the English-dominated government. In 2005, however, Gaelic became an official language of Scotland.
Strathclydian Gaelic Edit
Strathclydian Gaelic evolved from Scottish Gaelic, with the language considered a dialect of Scottish Gaelic until the late twentieth century. In 1996, shortly before the abolition of Scotland as a governmental division of Scotland, the Strathclyde Regional Council declared Strathclydian Gaelic as a seperate language from Scottish, a declaration widely ignored by both Scottish and international authorities.
Strathclydian Gaelic was made the official language of Strathclyde in its Constitution. Since independence, Strathclydian Gaelic has seen a surge of usage, largely due to campaigns by the Government of Strathclyde to promote its usage over English.
Strathclydian Gaelic is written in Strathclydian Latin (Gaelic: Aibidil á Srath Chluaidh [əpiʤiːɫ̪ a s̪rˠahj xɫ̪uəɣ]), which contains twenty letters, five of which are vowels:
- a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, ħ, i, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u, v
The five vowels also appear with grave accents:
- à, è, ì, ò, ù
The acute accent is also used on some vowels:
- á, é, ó
Although the Government uses the Latin names for the letters of the Strathclydian Latin alphabet, the letters were traditionally named after trees and other plants:
- a - ailm (elm)
- b - beith (birch)
- c - coll (hazel)
- d - dair (oak)
- e - eadha (aspen)
- f - feàrn (alder)
- g - gort (ivy)
- h - hath (hawthorn)
- ħ - tath (thistle)
- i - iogh (yew)
- l - luis (rowan)
- m - muin (vine)
- n - nuin (ash)
- o - oir (gorse)
- p - peith (reed)
- r - ruis (elder)
- s - suil (willow)
- t - teine (holly)
- u - ura (heather/linden)
- v - vears (gillyweed)
Strathclydian Gaelic vowels can have a grave accent, with the letters à, è, ì, ò, and ù, or an acute accent on the letters á, é, and ó.
Spelling Pronunciation English equivalent As in a, á [a], [a] cat bata, lochán à [aː] father bàta e [ɛ], [e] get, late le, teth è, é [ɛː], [eː] marry, lady sèimh, fhéin i [i], [iː] tin, sweet sin, ith ì [iː] evil mìn o [ɔ], [o] top, boat poca, bog ò, ó [ɔː], [oː] jaw, donate pòcaid, mór u [u] brute tur ù [uː] brood tùr
Spelling Pronunciation As in ai [a], [ə], [ɛ], [i] caileag, iuchair, geamair, dùthaich ài [aː], [ai] àite, bara-làimhe ao [ɯː], [ᵚi] caol, gaoil, laoidh ea [ʲa], [e], [ɛ] geal, deas, bean eà [ʲaː] ceàrr èa [ɛː] nèamh ei [e], [ɛ] eile, ainmeil èi [ɛː] cèilidh éi [eː] fhéin eo [ʲɔ] deoch eò [ʲɔː] ceòl, feòil eu [eː], [ia] ceum, feur ia [iə], [ia] biadh, dian ii [i] soviit, fiin io [i], [ᴊũ] fios, fionn ìo [iː], [iə] sgrìobh, mìos iu [ᴊu] piuthar iù [ᴊuː] diùlt, diùid oi [ɔ], [ɤ] boireannach, goirid òi [ɔː] fòill ói [oː] cóig ua [uə], [ua] ruadh, uabhasach, duais ui [u], [ɯ], [ui] muir, uighean, tuinn ùi [uː] dùin
Most letters are pronounced similarly to other European languages. The broad consonants t and d and often n have a dental articulation (as in Irish and the Romance and Slavic languages) in contrast to the alveolar articulation common in English and other Germanic languages). Non-palatal r is an alveolar trill (like Italian or Spanish rr.)
Postalveolar Palatal Velar Nasal m n̪ ɲ ŋ Plosive p, b t̪, d̪ k, g Affricate ʧ, ʤ Fricative f, v s ʃ x, ɣ Approximant j Lateral l, ɫ ʎ Trill r Flap ɾ Radical Lenited Orthography Broad Slender Orthography Broad Slender b (initial) [p] [pj] bh [v] [vj] b (final) [p] [jp] bh [v] [vj] c (initial) [kʰ] [kʰʲ] or [cʰ] ch [x] [ç] c (final) [xk] [kʰʲ] or [çkʲ] ch [x] [ç] d [t̪] ʤ] dh [ɣ] [ʝ] f (initial) [f] [fj] fh silent silent f (final) [f] [jf] fh silent silent g [k] [kʲ] or [c] gh [ɣ] [ʝ] ħ [ħ] [ħ] or [y] ħ no change no change l [ɫ̪] [ʎ] l no change [ʎ] or [l] m [m] [mj] mh [v] [vj] n [n̪ˠ] [ɲ] n [n] [ɲ] or [n] p (initial) [pʰ] [pjʰ] ph [f] [fj] p (final) [hp] [jhp] ph [f] [fj] r' [rˠ] same as broad r [ɾ] [ɾ] s [s̪] [ʃ] sh [h] [hʲ] t (initial) [t̪ʰ] [tʃʰ] th [h] [hʲ] t (final) [ht̪] [htʃ] th [h] or silent [hj] or [j] v [v] [f] v no change no change