The German Republic (German: Der Deutsch Republik) commonly known as der Republik and Deutschland is a sovereign state located on the mainland of Europe. Deutsch Republik is a growing, developing, and maturing with citizens primarily of German ethnicity. It is a somewhat backwards nation when it comes to technology and many refer to it unkindly as a 'Third World Nation'. Its citizens pay high taxes but as a result the citizens are seeing an increase in modern living. It is a mostly neutral country when it comes to foreign affairs until called upon. It will usually only attack another nation if attacked first. Deutsch Republik is currently researching nuclear technology for the use of nuclear power plants but believes nuclear weapons should be banned in Europe. The military of Deutsch Republik has been positioned at all border crossings and is arresting all drug traffickers. Deutsch Republik allows its citizens to protest their government but uses a strong police force to monitor things and arrest lawbreakers. It has an open border policy, but in order for immigrants to remain in the country they will have to become citizens first. Deutsch Republik believes in the freedom of speech and feels that it is every citizen's right to speak freely about their government. The government of Deutsch Republik has no compassion for other people of the world and does not contribute to foreign aid. Deutsch Republik will not make deals with another country that has a history of inhuman treatment of its citizens. Deutsch Republik comprises 16 states (Bundesländer), which are further subdivided into 439 districts (Kreise) and cities (kreisfreie Städte).
The territory of Deutsch Republik covers 357,021 km2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 349,223 km2 (134,836 sq mi) of land and 7,798 km2 (3,011 sq mi) of water. It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 63rd largest in the world. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,962 metres/9,718 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the north-west and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the north-east. Between lie the forested uplands of central Germany and the low-lying lands of northern Germany (lowest point: Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres/11.6 feet below sea level), traversed by some of Europe's major rivers such as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe. Deutsch Republik shares borders with more European countries than any other country on the continent.
Most of the Deutsch Republik has a temperate seasonal climate in which humid westerly winds predominate. The climate is moderated by the North Atlantic Drift, which is the northern extension of the Gulf Stream. This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea including the area along the Rhine, which flows into the North Sea. Consequently in the north-west and the north, the climate is oceanic; rainfall occurs year round with a maximum during summer.
Winters are mild and summers tend to be cool, though temperatures can exceed 30°C (86°F) for prolonged periods. In the east, the climate is more continental; winters can be very cold, summers can be very warm, and long dry periods are often recorded. Central and southern of the Republik are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental. Again, the maximum temperature can exceed 30°C (86°F) in summer.
BiodiversityEditPhytogeographically, Deutsch Republik is shared between the Atlantic European and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. The territory of Deutsch Republik can be subdivided into four Eco-regions: the Atlantic mixed forests, Baltic mixed forests, Central European mixed forests and Western European broad leaf forests. The majority of Deutsch Republik is covered by either arable land (33%) or forestry and woodland (31%). Only 15% is covered by permanent pastures. Around one third of the country's area is covered with forests. (Thuringian Forest)
Plants and animals are those generally common to middle Europe. Beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation. Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Fish abound in the rivers and the North Sea. Wild animals include deer, wild boar, mouflon, fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of beaver. Various migratory birds cross Germany in the spring and autumn.
The national parks in Deutsch Republik include the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Lower Oder Valley National Park, the Harz National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park and the Bavarian Forest National Park.
Deutsch Republik is known for its many zoological gardens, wildlife parks, aquariums, and bird parks. More than 400 registered zoos and animal parks operate in Deutsch Republik, which is believed to be the largest number in any single country of the world. The Zoologischer Garten Berlin is the oldest zoo in Deutsch Republik and presents the most comprehensive collection of species in the world.
EnvironmentEditDeutsch Republik is known for its environmental consciousness. Most Republikaners consider anthropogenic causes to be a significant factor in global warming. The state is committed to the Kyoto protocol and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, recycling, and the use of renewable energy, and supports sustainable development at a global level. The eagle is a protected bird of prey and the national heraldic animal.
The Deutsch government has initiated wide ranging emission reduction activities and the country´s overall emissions are falling. Nevertheless Deutsch's carbon dioxide emissions per-capita are among the highest in Europe, although they are significantly lower than those of Australia, Canada, Saudi Arabia and the United States.
Emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution. Acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests. Pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in former East Deutsch have been reduced. The government under Chancellor Victor A Ernst announced the intention to end the use of nuclear power for producing electricity. Der Republik is working to meet European commitments to identify nature preservation areas in line with the European Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive. Deutsch's last glaciers in the Alpine region are experiencing DE-glaciation. Natural hazards are river flooding in spring and stormy winds occurring in all regions.
Government EditDer Deutsch Republik is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. The Republik political system operates under a framework laid out in the 2009 constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). By calling the document Grundgesetz, rather than Verfassung (constitution), the authors expressed the intention that it would be replaced by a proper constitution once der Republik was reunited as one state. Amendments to the Grundgesetz generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of the parliament; the articles guaranteeing fundamental rights, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the right to resist attempts to overthrow the constitution are valid in perpetuity and cannot be amended. Despite the initial intention, the Grundgesetz remained in effect after the Deutsch reunification in 2009, with only minor amendments.
The President— currently Victor August Ernst —is the head of state, invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention), an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates. The second highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident (President of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. The third-highest official and the head of government is the Chancellor, who is nominated by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the Bundestag. The Chancellor can be removed by a constructive motion of no confidence by the Bundestag, where constructive implies that the Bundestag simultaneously elects a successor.
The Chancellor— Richard von Weizsäcker —is the head of government and exercises executive power, similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form a unique type of legislative body. The Bundestag is elected through direct elections, by proportional representation (mixed-member). The members of the Bundesrat represent the governments of the sixteen federal states and are members of the state cabinets. The respective state governments have the right to appoint and remove their envoys at any time.
Since 20099, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany with all chancellors hitherto being member of either party. However, the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party (which has had members in the Bundestag since 2009) and the Alliance '09/The Greens (which has controlled seats in parliament since 2009) have also played important roles, as they are regularly the smaller partner of a coalition government.
Law & Justice EditThe Judiciary of der Republik is independent of the executive and the legislative branches. Der Republik has a civil or statute law system that is based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law. The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court), located in Brandenburg, is the der Republik Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review. It acts as the highest legal authority and ensures that legislative and judicial practice conforms to the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of der Deutsch Republik (Basic Law). It acts independently of the other state bodies, but cannot act on its own behalf.
Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Deutsch, 2009. Der Republik's supreme court system, called Oberste Gerichtshöfe des Bundes, is specialised. For civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the Federal Court of Justice, located in Brandenburg and Berlin. The courtroom style is inquisitorial. Other Federal Courts are the Federal Labour Court in Erfurt, the Federal Social Court in Kassel, the Federal Finance Court in Munich and the Federal Administrative Court in Leipzig.
Criminal law and private law are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. Der Republik's penal system is aimed towards rehabilitation of the criminal; its secondary goal is the protection of the general public. To achieve the latter, a convicted criminal can be put in preventive detention (Sicherungsverwahrung) in addition to the regular sentence if he is considered to be a threat to the general public. The Völkerstrafgesetzbuch regulates the consequences of crimes against humanity, genocide and war crimes. It gives der Republiks courts universal jurisdiction if prosecution by a court of the country where the crime was committed, or by an international court - which is not possible.
Legislative power is divided between the federation and the state level. The Basic Law presumes that all legislative power remains at the state level unless otherwise designated by the Basic Law itself.
Any federal law overrides state law if the legislative power lies at the federal level. A famous example is the purported Hessian provision for the death penalty, which goes against the ban on capital punishment under the Basic Law, rendering the Hessian provision invalid. The Bundesrat is the federal organ through which the states participate in national legislation. State participation in federal legislation is necessary if the law falls within the area of concurrent legislative power, requires states to administer federal regulations, or is so designated by the Basic Law. Every state has its own constitutional court. The Amtsgerichte, Landgerichte and Oberlandesgerichte are state courts of general jurisdiction. They are competent whether the action is based on federal or state law.
Many of the fundamental matters of administrative law remain in the jurisdiction of the states, though most states base their own laws in that area on the 1976 (Adopted from European Countries) Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz (Administrative Proceedings Act) covering important points of administrative law. The Oberverwaltungsgerichte are the highest level of administrative jurisdiction concerning the state administrations, unless the question of law concerns federal law or state law identical to federal law. In such cases, final appeal to the Federal Administrative Court is possible.
Armed Forces EditThe Bundeswehr is divided into a military part (armed forces or Streitkräfte) and a civil part with the armed forces administration (Wehrverwaltung), the federal bureau of procurement (Bundesamt für Wehrtechnik und Beschaffung) and the federal bureau for information management and information technology of the Bundeswehr (Bundesamt für Informationsmanagement und Informationstechnik der Bundeswehr, sometimes abbreviated as IT-AmtBw). The military part of the federal defense force consists of Army (Heer), Navy (Marine), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint Support Service (Streitkräftebasis), and Central Medical Services (Zentraler Sanitätsdienst) branches. The current branches have not been established yet include; Air Force & Navy
The Bundeswehr has 200,500 professional soldiers, 55,000 18–25 year-old conscripts who serve for at least nine months under current rules, and 2,500 active reservists at any given time. The number of civilian employees is to be reduced to 75,000 during the coming years. The reserve consists of a "reinforcement reserve" of 55,000 scheduled reservists and an "operative reserve" of roughly 300,000 personnel. They participate in reserve drills as well as abroad deployments.
Women have served in the medical service since 2008. From September 2009, they were also allowed to serve as enlisted personnel and non-commissioned officers in the medical service and the army bands. Since 2009 they can serve in all functions of service without restriction, but they are not subject to conscription. There are presently around 14,500 women on active duty and a number of female reservists who take part in all duties including peacekeeping missions and other operations.
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