FANDOM


The Constitution of the First Republic of Grand Besaid was the highest legal document in the entire nation during the First Republic. It provided for the structure of the governing body, it protected the rights of the people, and it established the basic laws and structures of the nation. It was replaced by the current constitution, that of the Second Republic.

Text of the ConstitutionEdit

PreambleEdit

We, the people of Grand Besaid, thankful to Almighty God for his gifts, hereby ordain and establish this constitution to secure to ourselves such gifts like liberty, life, faith, love, and wisdom. We also establish this constitution to provide for liberty, sovereignty, the common defense, the general welfare, the fellowship of all citizens, and for the betterment of each other and ourselves. Using the wisdom granted to us by Almighty God, we hope to rule this nation wisely, upholding our values and virtues; realizing self-governing is a privilege of great responsibility.

Article I: Guaranteed RightsEdit

Section I: Political PowerEdit

All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for their equal benefit, security and protection.

Section II: Equal ProtectionEdit

No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws; All Grand Besaidians are equal before the law. No person shall be denied the enjoyment of their civil or political rights or be discriminated against in the exercise thereof because of religion, race, sex, color, national origin, social status, or similar reason.

Section III: Assembly; Consultation; Instruction; Protest; and PetitionEdit

The people have the right peaceably to assemble, to consult for the common good, to instruct their representatives, to protest peacefully, and to petition the government for redress of grievances.

Section IV: Freedom of Religion; State ReligionEdit

Christianity, and more specifically Roman Catholicism, is the official religion of Grand Besaid, as such, it is to be the source and foundation of all laws and legislation enacted within the nation. Though this constitution is here to support the Roman Catholic roots of the majority, the right of every person to practice religion as they choose shall also be guaranteed. The National Assembly may appropriate funds to Catholic Parishes and other Christian Churches across the nation of Grand Besaid to reimburse them for services and education provided to the citizens of Grand Besaid. The National Assembly may allow for the incorporation of Christian symbols and phrases into public objects and places. Prayer is to be allowed in public places, and Christian Scripture shall be acknowledged as truth.

Section V: Freedom of Expression; Speech; Press and of the InternetEdit

Every person may freely speak, write, publish, and otherwise express their views, being responsible for the abuse of such right. The National Assembly shall at no time enact a law to restrict or abridge the aforementioned rights. The freedom to express views on the Internet and through other forms of media is to be under the same protection as the other forms of expression mentioned in this section.

Section VI: Right to Bear ArmsEdit

Every person has the right to keep and bear arms for many purposes, some of those reasons include personal defense, recreation, hunting, national defense, and the defense of one’s state and property, amongst other reasons. The right to bear arms, being one of the best tools to preserve other liberties, shall not be infringed.

Section VII: Military SubordinationEdit

The Military shall at all times be in strict subordination to the civil power.

Section VIII: Quartering of SoldiersEdit

No Soldier shall be quartered in any house, on, or in any private property in times of peace without the explicit consent of the owner or occupant; nor shall any soldier be quartered during times of war either, except during invasions as prescribed by law.

Section IX: Attainder, ex post facto, unfair, and impairment of contract laws; Unfair and violating lawsEdit

No bill of attainder, ex post facto law or law impairing the obligation of contract shall be enacted. The National Assembly shall pass no law which unfairly treats the citizens of this nation, or which violates this constitution or the people’s rights.

Section X: Slavery and Involuntary servitudeEdit

Neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude unless for the punishment of crime, shall ever be tolerated in Grand Besaid.

Sections XI: Habeas Corpus; Known Charges; AppealsEdit

No one shall be denied the writ of habeas corpus, nor shall anyone not know the charges brought against them in a court of law, nor shall anyone be denied a justifiable appeal.

Section XII: Searches and Seizures; Imprisonment for debt; PrivacyEdit

The person, houses, papers, effects, writings, and possessions of every person shall be secure from unreasonable searches and seizures. No warrant to search any place or to seize any person or things shall be issued without describing them, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation. No person shall be imprisoned for debt arising out of or founded on contract, express or implied, except in cases of fraud or breach of trust. All citizens of Grand Besaid are to have the right to privacy.

Section XIII: Conduct of suits in person or by counselEdit

A suitor in any court of this nation has the right to prosecute or defend his suit, either in his own proper person or by an attorney.

Section XIV: Trial by jury; double jeopardy; bail; fines; punishment; detention of witnessesEdit

The right of trial by jury shall remain, but shall be waived in all civil cases unless demanded by one of the parties. No person shall be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy. All persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except that bail may be denied to persons whom are likely to be extremely dangerous, or where it is likely that they will try to flee. Excessive bail shall not be required; excessive fines shall not be imposed; cruel or unusual punishment shall not be inflicted; nor shall witnesses be unreasonably detained.

Section XV: Self-incrimination; due process of law; fair treatment at investigationsEdit

No person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law. The right of all individuals, firms, corporations and voluntary associations to fair and just treatment in the course of legislative and executive investigations and hearings shall not be infringed.

Section XVI: Rights of the AccusedEdit

In every criminal prosecution, the accused shall have the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of their peers; to be informed of the nature of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him or her; and to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his or her favor. In every criminal prosecution, the accused shall also have the right to have the assistance of counsel for his or her defense; to have an appeal as a matter of right, except as provided by law an appeal by an accused who pleads guilty or nolo contendere shall be by leave of the court.

Section XVII: MarriageEdit

To secure and preserve the benefits of marriage for our society and for future generations of children, the union of one man and one woman in marriage shall be the only agreement recognized as a marriage or similar union for any purpose.

Section XVIII: DiscriminationEdit

Grand Besaid shall not discriminate against, or grant preferential treatment to, any individual or group on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin in the operation of public employment, public education, or public contracting.

Section XIX: Right to LifeEdit

In order to protect the lives of all citizens of Grand Besaid, and in order to give safety to the unborn, all abortions are forbidden. Recognizing those same reasons, plus the uses of adult stem cells, embryonic stem cell research is also banned within the nation of Grand Besaid. The Death Penalty, being a cruel and barbaric practice, is never to be administered by the nation of Grand Besaid or any of its states. Murder and Euthanasia are also forbidden throughout the entire nation of Grand Besaid. Everyone shall have the right to life; life begins at conception.

Section XX: Freedom of InformationEdit

The people are to have the right to know of any and all laws passed by or recognized by the government. The people are to have access to all information known by the government so long as such information would not jeopardize national security, interfere with another’s rights or privacy, or disrupt justice.

Section XXI: Eminent DomainEdit

The government may not enact a law allowing for eminent domain, nor may the government participate in or allow for the practice of eminent domain. Land and other property may only be taken for the use of the public when it is necessary for national security, and only then once the owner has been paid at least ten times standard compensation. Should land obtained through eminent domain be no longer needed for the purposes of national security, then the land should be returned to the original owners; or their descendants should they no longer be living.

Section XXII: Official LanguagesEdit

English and Latin are to be the only two official languages of Grand Besaid. However, the right of every Grand Besaidian to teach and educate their children and themselves in either their mother tongue or other languages is guaranteed. The states may allow other official languages to exist within their jurisdiction as well.

Section XXIII: Birth Right CitizenshipEdit

A Grand Besaidian citizen by birth, defined as being born to a Grand Besaidian mother and a Grand Besaidian father in the territory of Grand Besaid, may not have their nationality or citizenship withdrawn for any reason. Any person who had their birth right citizenship or nationality withdrawn shall have the right to reclaim it, and law will stipulate this.

Section XXIV: Enumeration of rights not to deny othersEdit

The enumeration in this constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. The powers not delegated to the federal government of Grand Besaid by this constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

Article II: LegislativeEdit

The Legislative Powers of the Federal Government shall be vested in a National Assembly, consisting of a House of Representatives and a Council of Elders, and within a House of Censors.

Section I: House of RepresentativesEdit

A. The House of Representatives shall be comprised of members who are elected every other year by the people of their electoral districts; which shall be of near equal population. The members shall be elected by the several states, with each state’s representation being dependant on the size of their population; though each state shall receive at least one representative. There shall also be five representatives elected by the entire nation.

B. Any citizen of Grand Besaid whom has attained at least the age of seventeen may vote in all elections concerning representatives of their districts. Reasonable additional requirements maybe created by the state legislatures for electors living within their state.

C. The Number of Representatives shall not be greater than one for every one hundred thousand, unless the population of Grand Besaid is to fall drastically, in which case the Executive Triumvirate may submit a referendum to the voters of the nation to attempt to lower it. All districts’ boundaries, besides the ones which include the entire nation, shall be determined every five years by a national census.

D. In order to be a Representative, a person must be at least twenty years old, a citizen of Grand Besaid for at least ten years, a resident of Grand Besaid for at twelve years, and a resident of the district they are representing for at least one year. One may only be a representative for ten consecutive years, before needing to take a break from the House of Representatives for at least four years.

E. The House of Representatives shall elect from its self a speaker, and any other officers it deems necessary to the functioning of the House of Representatives.

F. Should a vacancy occur in the House of Representatives, then special elections shall be held in the district in which the vacant seat is representing to fill the vacancy for the remainder of the term.

Section II: Council of EldersEdit

A. The Council of Elders shall be comprised of members who are elected every three years by the people of their electoral districts, with one third being elected every year. The electors of each state shall elect five elders to represent them in the Elder Council. The entire nation's electorate shall also elect, by open list proportional representation, the number of elders equal to quadruple the number of states. Lastly, six Elders shall be elected by the nation as a whole through plurality elections.

B. Any citizen of Grand Besaid whom has attained at least the age of seventeen may vote in all elections concerning elders of their districts. Reasonable additional requirements maybe created by the state legislatures for electors living within their state.

C. In order to be an Elder, a person must be at least sixty-five years old, a citizen of Grand Besaid for at least thirty years, a resident of Grand Besaid for at thirty-four years, and a resident of the district they are representing for at least two years. One may only be an Elder for eighteen consecutive years, before needing to take a break from the council for at least seven years.

D. The eldest member of the Elder Council shall be the Speaker of the Elder Council; all other officers are to be elected by the council.

G. Should a vacancy occur in the Elder Council, then the Executive Triumvirate shall appoint a replacement until emergency elections can be conducted to fill the vacancy.

Section III: House of CensorsEdit

A. The House of Censors shall be comprised of members who are elected every three years by the entire nation, with one-third of the members being elected each year. The number of Censors is to be equal to triple the number of states. Censors are to be elected by the several states, with each state electing three censors, one each year.

B. Any citizen of Grand Besaid whom has attained at least the age of seventeen may vote in all elections concerning censors of their state. Reasonable additional requirements maybe created by the state legislatures for electors living within their state.

C. In order to be a censor, a person must be at least twenty-five years old, a citizen of Grand Besaid for at least fifteen years, a resident of Grand Besaid for at twenty years, and a resident of the state they are representing for at least three years. One may only be a censor for nine consecutive years, before needing to take a break from the House of Censors for at least two years.

D. The House of Censors shall elect their own speaker, and any officers they deem necessary.

E. Should a vacancy occur in the House of Censors, then the legislature of the state which the vacant seat represents shall appoint a replacement until emergency elections can be conducted to fill the vacancy.

F. Unlike the Council of Elders and the House of Representatives, the House of Censors is not part of the National Assembly; rather it is a body that is charged with constantly investigating the entire federal government. No government document, location, official or effect may be kept as a secret from the House of Censors; the House of Censors may initiate the impeachment of any official not belonging to the Supreme Court. Impeachment trials for National Assembly Members will be heard by the Supreme Court; impeachment trials for executive triumvirate members, ministers, department heads, and lower officials will be heard by the National Assembly. They may also by a two-thirds vote, veto a motion of the National Assembly. By a unanimous minus one vote, the House of Censors may remove a member of the National Assembly from office.

Section IV: Legislative ProcedureEdit

A. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.

B. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of both houses shall be recorded in such a journal.

C. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Representatives, Elders, and Censors, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof; but the National Assembly may at any time by law make or alter such regulations.

D. The National Assembly shall assemble at least four times at year, on the days prescribed by law, though they are encouraged to meet more often.

E. No house may adjourn for more than one week while any other house is in session, except with the permission of the houses in session.

F. No member of any house may be a member of another, nor may any member of a house hold or be appointed to another position of political power during their time as a member of the federal legislature.

G. Should a raise for a position within any house increase during a term, then the increase shall not be seen until the next term of that office.

H. Representatives, Elders, and Censors shall receive a compensation for their services paid out of the treasury of Grand Besaid. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House; they shall not be questioned in any other place.

I. Each house shall make and maintain its own rules and proceedings through a majority vote of a standard quorum.

Section V: MotionsEdit

A. All motions of the Legislature of Grand Besaid are to be enacted and created as the format of a bill or resolution, unless otherwise prescribed for. No resolution or bill may be otherwise named or started in order to circumvent this constitution or proper procedures.

B. Every motion, which has been passed by the House of Representatives and the Council of Elders, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the Executive Triumvirate. The Executive Triumvirate may approve or veto the motion by a two-thirds vote. Should a member be absent, their seat vacant, or should they abstain, then the Mosunor shall have the sole power of veto and approval. If the Executive Triumvirate approves it, then it shall become a law; if the Executive Triumvirate vetoes it, then it shall be returned to its house of origin, where the triumvirate’s veto and objections shall be recorded, and the motion shall be reconsidered. Every motion, besides adjournment and impeachment, shall be presented to the Executive Triumvirate.

C. After a veto by the Executive Triumvirate, and a reconsideration by the house of origin, the motion shall be back up for vote in the house of origin, where it shall require a two-thirds vote to pass on to the other house of the National Assembly. The other house of the National Assembly must also pass the motion with a two-thirds vote. If both houses of the National Assembly pass a motion originally vetoed by the Executive Triumvirate with a two-thirds vote, then that motion shall become law; neither the Executive Triumvirate nor the House of Censors may veto a motion in this position.

D. Should a motion be vetoed by the House of Censors, then it shall still be given to the Executive Triumvirate for approval or veto, with the vetoes and objections of both the House of Censors and the Executive Triumvirate being recorded. Should only the House of Censors veto the motion, then the motion shall require a three-fifths vote of both houses of the National Assembly to become a law. Should both the House of Censors and the Executive Triumvirate veto a motion, then it shall require a three-fourths vote of both houses of the National Assembly to become a law; neither the Executive Triumvirate nor the House of Censors may veto a motion in this position.

Section VI: Legislative Powers and LimitsEdit

A. A member of any legislative house may not hold another position in the government of Grand Besaid, or in the government of a state or any other sub-division of Grand Besaid. One person may only hold one seat in one house. Representatives, Elders, and Censors shall receive compensation for their services which is to be paid out of the national treasury. The amount shall be recommended by law, and approved by the electors during each general election.

B. Representatives, Elders, and Censors shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

C. The National Assembly shall have the power to lay and collect taxes; to organize and conduct censuses; to pay for federal debts; to appropriate money from the national treasury; to create and collect uniform duties, tariffs, and imposts; to borrow funds on the credit of Grand Besaid; to regulate commerce with foreign nations, sub-divisions, and other foreign and domestic powers; to provide for the general welfare and health of the nation and its citizens; to provide for rules relating to immigration, naturalization, and citizenship; to coin money and establish its value, especially in comparison to foreign currencies; to create or adopt national systems of measures; to provide rules for copyrights and bankruptcy; to protect the currency of the nation against counterfeit and fraud; to establish transportation and communication systems across the nation, and to delegate the creation and maintenance of said systems to the private sector; to provide fair rules for the capitalism of the nation; to create, abolish, and design courts inferior to the Supreme Court; to provide funds for people and Christian Churches in need; to remove and impeach ministers, presidents, supreme court justices, and chancellors; to investigate and oversee the Supreme Court's members, and impeach or remove them if needed; to ratify treaties; to declare war; to establish new states out of territory belonging to no state; to maintain the territory of the nation not belonging to a state on the territorial level; to raise and support armies and other military forces, and to appropriate money to such a cause, but for no more than one year at a time; to provide for rules on conscription and the militia; to locate and provide for a national capital; to provide for the construction of public places and buildings; to create, maintain, oversee, overrule, and abolish the various departments and ministries of the national government; to create positions within the federal government as needed, none of which being more powerful than any elected federal official; and to make laws that are necessary and proper for the nation of Grand Besaid.

D. The National Assembly shall not create any law which is forbidden in this constitution, nor may the National Assembly suspend legal rights like the writ of habeas corpus. The National Assembly shall treat all people equally before the law, and only create laws that treat all citizens equally. The National Assembly shall pass no bills of attainder or ex post facto; nor may they pass any other violating bills. Lifetime offices and terms shall not be created or maintained by the National Assembly, unless prescribed for in this constitution. The National Assembly shall not attempt to violate the rights of the people, exceed their power as prescribed in this constitution, or violate this constitution. The National Assembly shall not lay taxes or tariffs on any state or sub-division of Grand besaid. The National Assembly shall not give preference to any state's ports or transportation system over another's, and the National Assembly may not force any vessel or vehicle to pay duties, or clear or enter the ports or systems of another state then the one they choose to land or move in. The National Assembly may not establish nobility, or any type of royalty. Furthermore, No money shall be drawn from the treasury, accept in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

E. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. Furthermore, states may not lay imposts on items from another state, and any imposts or tariffs laid shall only be created and used for the funding of inspection laws and security of trades. Any excess on such tariffs and imposts shall be appropriated to the national treasury. No state may declare war; nor may any state keep troops without the permission of the National Assembly, unless they are being invaded or circumstances will not allow for delay of action.

Article III: ExecutiveEdit

The Executive Powers of the Federal Government shall be vested in an Executive Triumvirate, in the individual members of the Executive Triumvirate, in the Ministers and Department Heads, and in any lower officers that are deemed part of the executive branch.

Section I: MosunorEdit

A. The Mosunor shall be elected by the electors of the entire nation for terms of eight years. In order to be the Mosunor, a person must be at least twenty five years old; be born in the nation of Grand Besaid or be a citizen of Grand Besaid for at least fifty years; and a resident of Grand Besaid for at twenty-three years.

B. Any citizen of Grand Besaid whom has attained at least the age of seventeen may vote in all elections concerning the Mosunor. Reasonable additional requirements maybe created by the state legislatures for electors living within their state. The time and place of such elections shall be decided by the legislatures of each state, and by the National Assembly for all territories not belonging to a state.

C. The Mosunor shall receive compensation for their services at the times stated by law, and in the amounts decided by law. The amount shall not be increased, diminished, or otherwise altered during the term for which a Mosunor was elected, and all subsequent changes in compensation shall take effect either during the next term of office, or for the next holder of the office, whichever comes first.

D. Should the Mosunor perish, be removed, resign or acquire a disability which prevents them from accomplishing their duties, then the Chancellor shall become the Mosunor; should both the offices of Mosunor and Chancellor be vacant, then the President shall become the Mosunor. The National Assembly may, by law, declare which officers become Mosunor should the offices of Mosunor, Chancellor, and President all become vacant.

E. The Mosunor shall be the commander and chief of the armed forces of Grand Besaid; the chief ambassador to alliances and international organizations; the head of state of Grand Besaid; the head of government of Grand Besaid; the voting presiding officer of the executive triumvirate; and the highest enforcer of the constitution and laws of Grand Besaid. The Mosunor may request information from any military officer or lower executive and they may also call the National Assembly into emergency sessions. The Mosunor shall guide both the internal and foreign affairs of Grand Besaid. Every so often, the Mosunor shall address both the National Assembly and the state legislatures about the state of the nation, recommending measures and actions that they feel are necessary.

F. The Mosunor may be removed at anytime by a conviction of impeachment started by the House of Censors where the National Assembly judged the trial; such trials can, at most, remove the Mosunor from office and restrict their qualification to hold federal offices in the future. The Mosunor may also be removed by a three-fourths vote of both houses of the National Assembly.

Section II: PresidentEdit

A. The President shall be elected by the electors of the entire nation for terms of two years. In order to be the President, a person must be at least twenty five years old; be born in the nation of Grand Besaid or be a citizen of Grand Besaid for at least fifty years; and a resident of Grand Besaid for at twenty-three years.

B. Any citizen of Grand Besaid whom has attained at least the age of seventeen may vote in all elections concerning the President. Reasonable additional requirements maybe created by the state legislatures for electors living within their state. The time and place of such elections shall be decided by the legislatures of each state, and by the National Assembly for all territories not belonging to a state.

C. The President shall receive compensation for their services at the times stated by law, and in the amounts decided by law. The amount may not be increased, diminished, or otherwise altered during the term for which a President was elected, and all subsequent changes in compensation shall take effect either during the next term of office, or for the next holder of the office, whichever comes first.

D. Should the President perish, be removed, resign or acquire a disability which prevents them from accomplishing their duties, then the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall become the President. The National Assembly may, by law, declare which officers become President beyond the offices mentioned in this constitution should they be vacant.

E. The President shall be the deputy commander and chief of the armed forces of Grand Besaid; the deputy head of government of Grand Besaid; an overseer of domestic and internal affairs; a voting member of the executive triumvirate; and one of the highest enforcers of the constitution and laws of Grand Besaid. The President may request information from any military officer or lower executive and they may also call the Supreme Court into emergency sessions. The President shall guide the internal and domestic affairs of Grand Besaid. Every so often, the President shall address the National Assembly about the state of the nation's internal and domestic affairs, recommending measures and actions that they feel are necessary.

F. The President may be removed at anytime by a conviction of impeachment started by the House of Censors where the National Assembly judged the trial; such trials can, at most, remove the President from office and restrict their qualification to hold federal offices in the future. The President may also be removed by a three-fourths vote of both houses of the National Assembly.

Section III: ChancellorEdit

A. The Chancellor shall be elected by the electors of the entire nation for terms of four years. In order to be the Chancellor, a person must be at least twenty five years old; be born in the nation of Grand Besaid or be a citizen of Grand Besaid for at least fifty years; and a resident of Grand Besaid for at twenty-three years.

B. Any citizen of Grand Besaid whom has attained at least the age of seventeen may vote in all elections concerning the Chancellor. Reasonable additional requirements maybe created by the state legislatures for electors living within their state. The time and place of such elections shall be decided by the legislatures of each state, and by the National Assembly for all territories not belonging to a state.

C. The Chancellor shall receive compensation for their services at the times stated by law, and in the amounts decided by law. The amount shall not be increased, diminished, or otherwise altered during the term for which a Chancellor was elected, and all subsequent changes in compensation shall take effect either during the next term of office, or for the next holder of the office, whichever comes first.

D. Should the Chancellor perish, be removed, resign or acquire a disability which prevents them from accomplishing their duties, then the Senior Elder of the Elder Council shall become the Chancellor. The National Assembly may, by law, declare which officers become Chancellor should both the offices of Chancellor and Senior Elder be vacant.

E. The Chancellor shall be the deputy chief ambassador to alliances and international organizations; a primary ambassador to foreign states; the deputy head of state of Grand Besaid; an overseer of Grand Besaid's foreign affairs; a voting member of the executive triumvirate; and one of the highest enforcers of the constitution and laws of Grand Besaid. The Chancellor may request information from any military officer or lower executive and they may also call the House of Censors into emergency sessions. The Chancellor shall guide the foreign and external affairs of Grand Besaid. Every so often, the Chancellor shall address both the National Assembly and the department of foreign affairs about the state of the nation's foreign affairs, recommending measures and actions that they feel are necessary.

F. The Chancellor may be removed at anytime by a conviction of impeachment started by the House of Censors where the National Assembly judged the trial; such trials can, at most, remove the Chancellor from office and restrict their qualification to hold federal offices in the future. The Chancellor may also be removed by a three-fourths vote of both houses of the National Assembly.

Section IV: Executive TriumvirateEdit

A. The Executive Triumvirate shall consist of the Mosunor, the President, and of the Chancellor. The Mosunor shall be the presiding officer of the Executive Triumvirate. The Executive Triumvirate shall admit visitors into its meetings and sessions at its own digression.

B. The Executive Triumvirate shall appoint people to fill vacancies in the federal government that are not otherwise provided for which arise between sessions of the National Assembly or state legislatures, depending on which is applicable; such appointments shall last until the applicable legislature meets at its next session.

C. The Executive Triumvirate may pardon people and commute sentences, which are associated with crimes that break federal laws by unanimous vote; this does not include censures, investigations, or impeachments. The National Assembly can veto these pardons and commutations, as may the House of Censors. Vetoes on pardons and commutations may only be made up to one month after their issue, and until a veto occurs, the pardon or commutation shall be in effect. The Executive Triumvirate may not pardon one of its own members.

D. The Executive Triumvirate shall have the power to appoint ambassadors by a unanimous vote. Furthermore, the Executive Triumvirate shall receive foreign ambassadors and prominent messengers.

E. The Executive Triumvirate shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed. Just as the National Assembly and House of Censors may compel any federal official to testify their knowledge and findings before them; so shall all non-elected federal officials report their findings from time to time to the Executive Triumvirate, unless otherwise stated by law.

F. The Executive Triumvirate shall also nominate all officials whose appointment is not otherwise prescribed by law or in this constitution; such nominations shall be approved by the House of Representatives, unless law otherwise prescribes that they be approved by both houses of the National Assembly. The National Assembly can also choose to give the sole power of lesser appointments to the Executive Triumvirate alone, to Courts of law, or to other departments as they deem fit.

G. All decisions brought before the Executive Triumvirate shall be recorded in a journal and published from time to time, omitting and delaying the publication of certain sections as they deem necessary.

H. The Executive Triumvirate shall, like all other officials and government bodies, not be above the law. The Executive Triumvirate shall have to obey all laws, and the Executive Triumvirate may not issue orders that have the effect of laws, nor may the Executive Triumvirate attempt to exceed the power granted to it by this constitution.

Article IV: JudicialEdit

The judicial power of Grand Besaid shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the National Assembly may from time to time ordain and establish.

Section I: Supreme CourtEdit

A. In order to be a Supreme Court Justice, a person must be at least thirty years old, a citizen of Grand Besaid for at least twenty-five years, and a resident of Grand Besaid for at least twenty-seven years. One may only be a Supreme Court Justice for twenty-seven consecutive years, before needing to take a break from the court for at least nine years.

B. The Supreme Court shall be comprised of nineteen members who are to be a combinantion of members elected by the nation as a whole and appointed by the state legislatures; Supreme Court members shall serve terms of nine years. Each state legislature shall appoint three Supreme Court Justices, one every three years. The last three members shall be elected by the electors of the entire nation, with one being elected every three years. The Chief Justice shall be the most senior member who was elected by the populace of the entire nation.

C. Any citizen of Grand Besaid whom has attained at least the age of seventeen may vote in all elections concerning Supreme Court Justices. Reasonable additional requirements maybe created by the state legislatures for electors living within their state.

D. Should a vacancy occur in the Supreme Court, then the Executive Triumvirate shall appoint a replacement, and the National Assembly shall approve it. The replacement justice shall serve until the original term was to end.

E. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, though the National Assembly may make exceptions to this.

F. The Supreme Court shall be the primary overseer of the House of Censors. The Supreme Court may remove or start an impeachment hearing for any member of the House of Censors at anytime; motions of impeachment will require a three-fifths vote of the Supreme Court, while motions of removal shall require a two-thirds vote of the Supreme Court. Impeachment trials for Censors shall be conducted by the House of Representatives, with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court presiding. The Supreme Court may overturn any motion of the House of Censors not dealing with amendments.

Section II: Inferior CourtsEdit

A. The National Assembly shall, by law, create a system of inferior courts with the advice of the Supreme Court.

B. The inferior courts shall have original jurisdiction on anything that is not otherwise explicitly given to the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

C. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trials shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed. If the crime did not occur in any state, then the trial shall be held at the places directed by national law. All trials shall be public, and even those of other citizenships or who are in the armed forces shall have the right to a trial by a jury of their peers.

Section III: Judicial PowersEdit

A. Any law may be brought before any court to question its constitutionality; should the law violate this constitution, then that court shall strike it down. Such cases may be brought before a number of courts, and would have their final ruling by the Supreme Court, should the Supreme Court choose to hear it. State Laws and Constitutional Clauses are not immune to this review.

B. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of Grand Besaid, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which Grand Besaid shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states; between a state and citizens of another state; between citizens of different states; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.

C. Both Supreme Court Justices and inferior court's judges shall receive a compensation for their services paid out of the treasury of Grand Besaid. Such compensation shall be determined by law, and it shall not be raised or otherwise altered during the term of a justice or judge. Should law mandate the raise or alteration of such pay, then it shall take effect during the next term of that office, or when a new person shall hold that office.

Article V: AuditableEdit

The Auditable power of the national government of Grand Besaid shall be vested in the Council of Auditors.

Section I: Council of AuditorsEdit

A. The Council of Auditors shall be comprised of members who are elected for terms of four years. One-half of the members of the Council of Auditors shall be elected by the electors of the several states, with the electors of each state electing four auditors through plurality voting, two every even year. Three-eighths of the members of the Council of Auditors shall be elected by the electors of the entire nation through open list proportional representation using a single transferable vote system, one half of these members shall be elected every even year. One-eighth of the members of the Council of Auditors shall be nominated by the Executive Triumvirate with the advice of the Supreme Court, and confirmed by the Council of Elders, with one half these being chose every even year.

B. Any citizen of Grand Besaid whom has attained at least the age of seventeen and who is eligible to vote in the elections for the House of Representatives is eligible to vote in all applicable elections concerning members of the Council of Auditors.

C. In order to be a member of the Council of Auditors, a person must be at least twenty-six years old, a citizen of Grand Besaid for at least seventeen years, and a resident of Grand Besaid for at least twenty years. Should they be representing a state, then they must also be a resident of the state they are representing.

D. A person may only serve in the Council of Auditors for four consecutive terms, though they may serve for an unlimited number of terms in their lifetime.

E. The members of the Council of Auditors shall elect any other officers they deem to be necessary.

F. Should a vacancy occur in the Council of Auditors, and should that seat be representing the entire nation, then the Executive Triumvirate shall appoint a replacement who must be confirmed by the Council of Auditors, and the replacement shall serve for the remainder of the term.

G. Should a vacancy occur in the Council of Auditors, and should that seat be representing a state, then the executive power of that state shall appoint a replacement for the remainder of the term. Replacements must be of the same party as those who they are replacing, unless they are replacing someone who did not have a party.

H. Should a vacancy occur in the Council of Auditors, and should that seat be one appointed by the Executive Triumvirate with the advice of the Supreme Court, and on the Confirmation of the Council of Elders, then the Executive Triumvirate shall appoint a replacement with the advice and consent of the House of Representatives.

Section II: Auditable PowersEdit

A. The Council of Auditors shall evaluate all of the laws of Grand Besaid, and recommend changes and improvements to the National Assembly. Should the National Assembly reject a recommended change, then the Council of Auditors may, by a three-fifths vote, submit the proposed change to a binding national referendum during the next general election.

B. The Council of Auditors shall evaluate the various government departments and shall suggest improvements and ways to improve efficiency.

C. The Council of Auditors shall establish and operate a government accountability office, and they shall investigate all claims against the government and evaluate government finances and spending, though other organizations and officials may as well. It shall send its reports to the National Assembly, House of Censors and the Supreme Court.

D. The Council of Auditors shall investigate the National Assembly as a whole.

E. The Council of Auditors shall also watch over the executive and the administrative officials while the National Assembly is on recess. The Council of Auditors can, by a majority vote, suspend any policy or action of an administrative official until the National Assembly can vote to accept or reject it. The Executive Triumvirate may veto this suspension, and the Council of Auditors can, by a three-fifths vote, lift his veto and continue the suspension or take the matter before the Supreme Court.

F. A 2/3rds vote of the House of Censors, House of Representatives, Council of Elders, Council of Auditors, and Executive Triumvirate shall be enough to nullify an interpretation or act of judicial review.

Section III: Auditable ProcedureEdit

A. The times, places and manner of holding elections for auditors shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof; but the National Assembly may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations.

B. a majority of the members of the Council of Auditors shall be enough to constitute a quorum to do business. Smaller quorums shall have the power to compel the attendance of and to punish absent members in a manner prescribed by the rules of the Council of Auditors.

C. The Council of Auditors shall keep a record of its votes, discussions, and resolutions. Each month it shall publish the record, omitting such parts that are vital to national security as decided by a majority vote. The published record shall be accessible in all public libraries, courthouses, on at least one government website, and in all other public places that law shall stipulate to have it.

D. Members of the Council of Auditors shall be paid directly from the Grand Besaid Public Treasury in the amounts and at the time prescribed by law.

E. The Council of Auditors may establish and amend its own rules by a majority vote of a standard quorum.

F. The Council of Auditors shall judge the qualifications of its own members.

G. The Council of Auditors may create committees and similar bodies to help with their functioning and order by a mere majority vote of a standard quorum.

H. The Council of Auditors shall meet at least once every other week, though they are encouraged to meet more frequently.

Article VI: Departments and Cabinet MembersEdit

Section I: Ministers and Cabinet MembersEdit

A. The National Assembly may create and abolish departments and ministries to help with the functioning of the federal government. The National Assembly may also delegate certain powers of theirs to these ministries and departments in the manner they see fit.

B. The Ministers and Department Heads that lead each ministry or department shall be elected by the electors of the entire nation for terms of four years. Should a vacancy arise, then the Executive Triumvirate will appoint a replacement that shall be approved by the Elder Council. These Ministers and Department Heads shall serve as the Executive Triumvirate's cabinet, though the Executive Triumvirate may allow for other advisors to be on it's cabinet.

C. Other high ministerial and departmental positions may be created by law. Such positions will be filled by the Executive Triumvirate nominating an officer holder, and the National Assembly approving the nomination. No other position shall exceed the power of their respective Minister or Department Head; and no Minister or Department Head's power shall exceed that of the Executive Triumvirate or National Assembly.

Section II: Lesser Officials and Public OmbudsmansEdit

A. The National Assembly, Department Heads, and Ministries may create and provide for lower positions and bureaucrats to help run the Departments and Ministries, each position shall be filled in a manner prescribed by law. These lesser officials' powers shall not exceed those of their respective Minister or Department Head.

B. Public Ombudsmans shall handle complaints and assist the House of Censors in investigations. Public Ombudsmans shall report to the National Assembly, the House of Censors, the Supreme Court, or to the people themselves. Public Ombudsmans shall either be elected by the electors of the nation, or appointed by the National Assembly. Public Ombudsmans shall act like public lawyers and investigators, and shall act for the good of the public. The House of Censors, the National Assembly, or the people may remove public ombudsmans at any time. The powers and positions of public ombudsmans shall be created and determined by law for predetermined periods of time.

Article VI: States and SubdivisionsEdit

Section I: AdmissionEdit

A. The National Assembly may create new states out of territory belonging to no other state or combination of states. States may only be formed out of existing ones by the permission of the National Assembly and by the permission of the electors and legislatures of the states involved.

B. New states may only be admitted if the territory pending statehood has a population of at least 2,500,000 people. Any territory pending statehood shall have a constitution ready to take effect at the time of statehood, such a constitution shall have been approved by the majority of the electors of the territory pending statehood.

C. New states shall gain their usual representation in the Council of Elders and House of Censors immediately. New states shall receive one seat in the House of Representatives until the next national census prescribes otherwise. The first terms of the first delegates of new states to the national legislatures shall be made so as to align the future terms of their seats with the already existing ones of that house.

Section II: DivisionsEdit

A. States may politically divide themselves further into things like counties, provinces, regions, cities, and other municipalities to help with the organization and governing of the state.

B. The States may provide the type of government of such subdivisions, or the states may leave the decision up to the electors of the subdivision in a manner prescribed by state law. Municipal governments of the several states shall have all the restrictions placed on them that are placed on states, and each state may place further restrictions on their powers.

Section III: GovernmentEdit

A. State governments shall be constitutional republics, and they shall have a legislative and executive branch. They are also encouraged to have their own judicial branch, and may even include things like administrative branches. The electors of the states shall elect the members of at least one legislative house in each state government.

B. No state officials shall serve life time terms, though they may be continuously elected or appointed as prescribed by their respective state constitution.

Section IV: RecognitionEdit

A. All public acts, records, and proceedings of one state shall be recognized by the others, vesting full faith and credit in each other. The National Assembly may prescribe, by law, the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings are to be proved and recognized by the other states, and the manner in which they are to have effect.

B. The National Assembly shall act as the territorial government of all territory not belonging to a state. The National Assembly may also organize territories not belonging to a state, and delegate their authority to territorial governments as they see fit.

C. The National Assembly shall have the power to buy new territories; the power to sell territories of Grand Besaid not belonging to a state; and the power to give territory not belonging to a state to a state.

D. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states.

E. If a crime is committed in one state, and the suspected criminal flees to another; then the state where the crime was committed may order the state where the suspected criminal resides to hand the suspected criminal over to it.

Article VII: MiscellaneousEdit

Section I: Legal Status of the ConstitutionEdit

A. This constitution shall be the Supreme Law of the land superseding all treaties; laws; declarations; orders; regulations; and other documents and means of legal power, precedence, and influence.

B. Legal Documents that violate this constitution are null and void, and the Supreme Court or other inferior court shall declare them as such.

Section II: TransitioningEdit

A. Until the National Assembly appoints other days by law, they shall meet at least every first Tuesday in April, second Tuesday in June, third Thursday in October, and second Wednesday in December.

B. All debt acquired, all treaties created, and all laws passed under former constitutions shall be held valid under this one, unless they explicitly break a section of this constitution, then they shall be considered void.

C. No official may hold a life time term, though an official may serve for a life time by being continuously elected or appointed as directed by this constitution.

D. Treason is defined only as levying war against Grand Besaid or as aiding enemies of Grand Besaid by supplying them with aid, comfort, and resources. The National Assembly may, by law, prescribe the punishment for treason.

Article VIII: AmendmentsEdit

A. Any member of the Council of Elders or House of Representatives may propose Amendments to this constitution; they shall require a four-fifths vote in all three houses of the legislature, and unanimous approval of the current executive triumvirate. Upon receiving such approval, an amendment shall be submitted to the state legislatures. Every state legislature must then ratify the amendment by a three-fourths vote or greater in order for the amendment to pass. Amendments passed this way shall become effective after three months.

LinksEdit


Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.