Named for the Germanic tribe of the Thuringii, Thuringia was first organized as a state in 450, when it became an independent kingdom. Colonized by the Franks in the sixth century, it was reorganized as a quasi-independent Frankish Duchy, and included in the creation of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation between in the tenth century as a landgraviate. The War of the Thuringian Succession saw Thuringia split in two, the western portion becoming the Duchy of Hesse, today a Großgermanian province.
Embracing the Protestant Reformation, Thuringia was largely the birthplace of the Anabaptist movement. Following the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, Thuringia became part of the French client state of the Confederation of the Rhine, and, following Napoleon's defeat, the German Confederation. Subsequently annexed by Prussia and included in the German Empire, Thuringia was split into seven duchies, six of which merged to refound Thuringia following German defeat in the First World War, with Weimar as its capital. Thuringia was turned into a Gau under the Großdeutsches Reich, and, according to a 2005 study, was used as a testing ground for the world's first nuclear bomb, detonated by the German Army.
Under the German Democratic Republic, Thuringia was dissolved into three districts, which reunited to recreate Thuringia as a Federal State of a unified Germany in 1990. Upon the unification of Großgermania in 2008, Thuringia became a province and its capital moved from Erfurt to Nordhausen.