The Province of Spain (German: Provinz von Spanien) is a province of the Duchy of Brunswick. The province is made up of the former Kingdom of Spain. It is bordered by the provinces of Portugal and France. Its capital is Madrid.
The Celts, Iberians, and Basques populated Spain before it became a part of the Roman Empire in 206 B.C. Two centuries later, a Visigoth named Ataulf ruled in the name of the Roman Empire before claiming Spain for his own. The Muslims entered Spain from Africa in 711 and conquered the country within a few years of their arrival. The Franks were victorious over the Muslims after defeating them in battle near Poitiers in 732, preventing the spread of Islam across Europe. This defeat opened the door for a Christian conquest of Spain.
The kingdoms of Aragon and Castile were consolidated upon the marriage of Ferdinand II and Isabella I in 1469. The couple established the Spanish Inquisition in 1478 to root out heresy and uncover false converts to Christianity. Granada, the last Muslim stronghold, was captured in 1492. Roman Catholicism became the religion of Spain and Spanish Jews and Muslims were expelled after the declaration. Spain became a European power during the era of exploration and amassed great wealth for the Spanish Hapsburg monarchs.
Phillip II sent his Armada to attack England in 1588 but faced defeat and the loss of Spain’s status as a European power and made it easier for England to colonize the Americas. Spain lost Belgium, Luxembourg, Milan, Sardinia, and Naples during the War of the Spanish Succesion. The colonies Spain had established in the Americas and the Philippines were also lost during the revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries.
Spain proclaimed neutrality during World War 1. General Miguel Primo de Rivera became dictator in 1923 and King Alfonso XIII revoked the dictatorship in 1930, but was forced to go into exile due to antimonarchist sentiment. A mutiny was led against the government on July 18, 1936, by Francisco Franco Bahamonde. A civil war ensued for three years after the mutiny. The war concluded when Franco conquered Madrid in March 1939. Under Franco’s leadership, the Spanish people approved a law restoring the monarchy but the monarchy would not be restored until after Franco’s death. Franco died on November 20, 1975, and King Juan Carlos was crowned on November 22, 1975.
Spain became a part of the Duchy in 2010.