The Province of Lithuania (German: Provinz Litauen) is a province of the Duchy of Brunswick. The province is made up of the former Republic of Lithuania. It is bordered by the provinces of Latvia, Belarus, Poland, and Kaliningrad. It is bordered by the Baltic Sea. Its capital is Vilnius.
The Lith people were united under King Mindaugas in 1251. King Ladislaus II of Lithuania became king of Poland in 1386 through marriage and united the two Kingdoms. The Teutonic Knights were defeated at Tannenberg by the Poles and Lithuanians in 1410. The Polish and Lithuanian kingdoms were combined to become one of the largest, most powerful empires in medieval Europe from the 14th to the 16th centuries. Poland and Lithuania were a confederation for almost two centuries before their formal unification in 1569. This lasted until the partitions of Poland to Russia, Prussia, and Austria. Lithuania became a Russian controlled territory after the third partition of Poland. Lithuania declared independence after the collapse of the Russian Empire after World War I with the protection of the Germans. The Soviet Union annexed Lithuania in 1940 but the Germans occupied it from 1941 to 1944. In 1990, Lithuania elected a non-Communist president and rejected Russian control by declaring independence.
Lithuania became a part of the Duchy in 2009.