The Province of Ireland (German: Provinz von Irland) is a province of the Duchy of Brunswick. The province is made up of the former Republic of Ireland. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, Irish Sea, and the Celtic Sea. Its capital is Dublin.
Ireland was first inhabited by Picts and Erainn during the Stone and Bronze Ages. Celts arrived from Gaul or Galicia in the 4th century B.C. and established a civilization after assimilating the Picts and Erainn. Ireland separated into five kingdoms during the Christian Era: Ulster, Connacht, Leinster, Meath, and Munster. Christianity was introduced to Ireland in 432 by Saint Patrick. Ireland fended off the Norse from 795 to 1014 before the pope gave them to the English in the 12th century. Henry II of England became Lord of Ireland in 1171 but English control of Ireland was not secure until the 1600s. The Act of Union in 1801 created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In the following years, the Irish economy began to decline before the Great Potato Famine of 1846-1848 claimed many civilians and drove many to immigrate to the Americas. The Irish led the Easter Rebellion of 1916 because of the desire for Irish home rule. This rebellion was not successful and led to guerilla warfare against British forces. A republic was proclaimed in 1919 and the Irish Free State was not established until December 6, 1922. Six counties in the north remained part of the United Kingdom which caused a division between those supporting an Anglo-Irish Treaty and those who opposed the partitioning of the island. The efforts to stop the partition were squashed. Ireland changed its name to Éire as part of the 1937 constitution. Ireland maintained neutrality in World War II. The Republic of Ireland was declared on April 18, 1949.
Ireland became a part of the Duchy in 2010.