The Province of Croatia (German: Provinz Kroatien) is a province of the Duchy of Brunswick. The province is made up of the former Republic of Croatia. It is bordered by the provinces of Slovenia, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Montenegro. Its capital is Zagreb.
The area now known as Croatia was originally the Roman province of Pannonia. Pannonia was settled in the 7th century by the Croats. The Croats converted to Christianity between the 7th and 9th centuries. The Croats adopted the Roman alphabet under Charlemagne. The Croats defeated the Byzantine and Frankish invasions in 925 and established their own kingdom. The kingdom reached its peak in the 11th century before civil war broke out in 1089. The country came under Hungarian rule in 1091 and became two nations with the signing of the Pacta Conventa between the Croatian tribal chiefs and the Hungarian king in 1102. The Hungarians were defeated by the Turks in 1526 and the Croats and Hungarians elected Ferdinand of Hapsburg as king. The Austrian-Hungarian kingdom was established in 1867 and Croatia became part of Hungary until the kingdom was defeated in World War I. Croatia declared independence on October 29, 1918, and entered a union with the Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia to create the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia). Yugoslavia was invaded in 1941 and Croatia became a German state until 1945. Croatia became the Communist republic of Yugoslavia but nationalism remained. The Communists were defeated in the free elections in 1990 and in 1991, the Croations declared independence which launched a Serbian-Yugoslavian conflict.
Croatia became a province of the Duchy in 2009.