The Province of Belgium (German: Provinz von Belgien) is a province of the Duchy of Brunswick. The province is made up of the former Kingdom of Belgium. It is bordered by the provinces of France and the Netherlands. Its capital is Brussels.
Belgium was named after the Belgae people and was once the Roman province of Belgica. Julius Caesar conquered Belgica around 50 B.C. but the Franks overrun the province in the 5th century A.D. Charlemagne conquered the province and made it a part of his empire in the 8th century. The province was absorbed into Lotharingia in the 9th century and into Lower Lorraine in the 10th century. The duchies of Brabant and Luxembourg, the bishopric of Liége, and the count of Hainaut’s domain partitioned Belgium. The Low Countries were passed the duchy of Burgundy and were inherited by Emperor Charles V, who later abdicated. These territories were passed on to Philippe II of Spain. The upper part gained independence and became the Netherlands but the lower part remained under Spanish influence until it was transferred to Austria in 1713. Belgium was later occupied and annexed to France but returned to the king of Holland in 1815. The Belgians rebelled in 1830 and declared independence soon after.
The invasion of Belgium by the Germans was another trigger of World War I. The areas of Eupen, Malmédy, and Moresnet were returned to Belgium in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles. Belgium was invaded once again by Germany in World War II and their king, Leopold III, was held prisoner under German rule. The monarchy was restored in 1950.
Belgium became a province of the Duchy in 2009.